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Miss Uora Chstterjee 

The iiev. U.S.O. Jones 

Dr, Slllnwood 

The Rev. A.J. Brown 

The rtev, J.H. OrblBon 

The Rev. William Fleming 

The Rev. Wllllem P. Fulton 

Roraoe K. Wright 

Horace K, Wright 

President Cheesman A. Herrick 

Hra. Hoys 

Mr. Harold A, Hatch 











































Iepared fok the committee on policy and methods of the board 




Board of Foreign Missions 




NEW York. 



I. Preparation and diameter of Candidates. 

(1) Qualifications. 

(2) Is the Seminary education adequate ? 

(3) Could special training be given to candidates under appoint¬ 
ment? If so. what? 

(Authorities : Shanghai Conference, rSgo, page 145: Shanghai Con¬ 
ference. rSgo, page 162; London Conference, 1888, Vol. II., pages 1-26; 
“ Missionary Methods," Cust, page 193; Anglican Conference, 1894.) 

II. Salary and Perquisites. 

(1) What are the perquisites? 

(2) Would not a consolidated salary be preferable ? 

{3) Should salary vary with fluctuations in exchange? 

(4) Are the salaries with perquisites now excessive ? If so, in what 
Missions or Stations ? 

III. Mode of Life. 

(1) Is criticism that missionaries live extravagantly justifiable? 

{2) Does it tend to produce a chasm between missionaries and 
natives ? Can this be avoided ? 

(3) How far does it interfere with effectiveness? 

(4) What proportion of time is given to actual mission work? 

(5) Relations of missionaries to foreign residents, extent and influ¬ 
ence? {e.g., Preaching to foreigners; education of their children.) 

IV. Efflciency. 

(0 Do any of our missionaries fail to acquire a thorough working 
knowledge of the language ? 

(2) Is there reason to believe that any, through indolence or in¬ 
judiciousness, are so lacking in efficiency as to warrant admonition or 

(3) Is there a lack of spiritual power and purpose? (Anglican Con¬ 
ference, 303.) 

(4) How may their efficiency be increased? 

(5) Would a form of personal report embracing searching and com¬ 
prehensive questions be advisable ? 

V. Unmarried Men. 

(r) Should men be encouraged to go to the field unmarried; if so, 
to what e.xtent? 

VI. Laymen. 

(1) Should laymen be sent ? If so, for what purposes and to what 
extent ? 

VII. Vac.'iUons on the Field, and Health Trips, 

(1) Where spent ? 

(2) How far can they be utilized for work ? 

(3) How ordered and who pays expense of ? 


(See “ Methods of Mission Work,” Nevius.) 

I. Cluircli Orffaiiizntion nnd Methods. 

(1) Is it \vise to impose upon the Native Church the forms of organ¬ 
ization and methods of work prevailing in the United States? 

(2) Is there danger of the churches being dominated by the mission¬ 
aries ? 

(3) Should all unordained missionaries become members of native 
churches ? 

II. Native ClirJstiaiis. 

(1) What is the character of native Christians? 

(2) How far should they be encouraged to abandon native customs? 
(Shanghai Conference, 1S90, pages 603-609.) 

(3) To what extent are native Christians dependent on the mission¬ 
aries 7 

(4) Does the placing of ministers, supported by the Board, over con- 
gregations, weaken the people’s sense of responsibility for the spread of 
the Gospel, and for the attainment of self-support? 

III. Self-Support. 

(1) To what extent has it been attained ? 

(2) Are pastors installed over churches non-self-supporting in whole 
or in part ? 

(3) What is the attitude of native helpers on the subject? 

(4) Bearing on self-support of the methods and habits of giving? 

(5) Are salaries so guaranteed by the Mission as that any failure of 
the people to meet their obligation must be met by the Board ? 

(6) To what extent is self-support possible ? 

(7) How develop self-support? (Paper by Dr. Duncan, Report of 
New York Conference, January, 1894, Shanghai Conference, 1890, 
pages 415-436.) 

IV. Native Agents. 

(1) How do their salaries compare with those of same class of people 
in other callings? 

(2) Character and qualifications? 

(3) Supplementary training in Conferences, etc. ? 

(4) What classes or grades of native agents have we? 

(5) Attitude of Board toward natives trained in America ? 

(6) Relations to missionaries ? 


I. Ednontional. 

1. Number of schools, location and character, classes of, as day.j 
boarding, theological, etc. ? 

2. Number of missionaries employed in teaching, and how much time, 

devoted to the work ? { 

3. How many native agents employed in this work, and how many 
of these are Christians? 

4. Education of native helpers ? 

(1) What aid do they receive? Effects of such aid on students? 

(2) Is any manual labor required? 

(3) What practical training in evangelistic work? 

(4) To what extent should study and practical work be combined? 

(5) Is the school or apprenticeship system, i. e., training in practical 
work by individual missionaries, preferable? 

(6) Is the course of study adapted to the needs of the men and the 
field ? 

5. High class education ? 

(1) To what extent is it or should it he given to non-Christians of 
either sex ? 

(2) Total cost? To what extent self-supporting ? 

(3) Evangelistic character of ? 

6. Do our methods educate children away from their own people? 

7. Use of other languages than the vernacular. 

S. What proportion of pupils from Christian and heathen homes? 

9. What religious instruction is given, and by whom? 

10. Enlargement of schools at expense of missionary effectiveness? 

11. To what extent are the expenses of schools met by the people ? 

12. How are the schools controlled? By Mission, Station or indi- 
vidual ? 

if. ETiiugclistic. 

(1) How many missionaries engaged in ? And what portion of time 
given to it? 

(2) Itineration. How much is done? What proportion of the year 
devoted to it? How directed? 

(3) How many natives so employed ? and by whom paid? How is 
their work directed and controlled ? 

(4) Is there lack of faith in, and of effort for, the conversion of 
adults ? 

(5) Are all desirable forms of evangelistic work made use of? 

(6) Should not the missionary be regarded as an evangelist or a 
director of evangelists, rather than as a pastor? 

(7) Relation of central stations to outlying districts, and methods 
of systematically visiting towns and villages. 

III. Iiidnstrial. 

(1) What responsibility have missions and missionaries for the social 
condition of converts? 

(2) Where should industrial work be introduced, and to what extent ? 

(3) What should be its character and its relation to other depart¬ 
ments of the work ? 

IV. Medical. 

(1) What should be the character and extent of medical work? 

(2) Is there danger of building i\p large medical establishments at 
the expense of their missionary character and influence ? 

(3) To what extent is medical work evangelistic? 

(4) Is it wise to send trained nurses from the United States ? 

(5) Should payment for treatment and medicines be expected or 
insisted upon ? 

V. I’riiiting and Printing Presses. 

(1) How many printing establishments and presses are connected 
with our missions ? 

(2) How far should they be used for other than our own Mission 
purposes and needs ? 

(3) What relation should such establishments sustain to the Mission 
and the Board? 

(4) Is it wise to permit the introduction of presses by individual 
missionaries or stations for their own use and under their own control ? 

(5) How far should ordained missionaries be charged with the busi¬ 
ness supervision of printing presses? 

VI. Woman’s Work. 

(t) Relations of wives of missionaries to active work? 

(2) Is the present ratio of single women to the entire missionary 
force satisfactory? 

Woman’s work is included in the other general divisions of the 


I. Home Administration. 

(1) What is the Home Work, and how should it be apportioned and 
organized ? 

(2) Relation of the Board to its sources of revenue and our ecclesi¬ 
astical system? 

(3) Relation of the Board to the other Boards of the Church in dis¬ 
seminating information and stimulating giving? 

{4) Relation of Women’s Boards and Societies to this Board? 

(5) Development of lay interest, men’s leagues, etc. ? 

(6) Question of special objects ? 

(7) Literature of the Board ? 

(8) Home expenditure, is it excessive? If so, how reduce it? 

II. Administt’Ation Abroad. 

(1) Is government by Missions the best? If so, are their present 
powers and functions adequate? 

(2) Would greater efficiency be secured by the appointment of a 
Sviperintendent, especially in our larger Missions? 

(3) Relation of the Mission to the Presbytery and the Native 

(4) Relation of the Mission to the individual missionary ? Does it 
exercise the control required by the Manual ? 

(5) Employment of Business Agents to take charge of the treasury, 
and other secular interests ? 

III. Relations at Home and Abroad. 

1. Relations of Missions and Board to Governments ? (Shanghai Con¬ 
ference, 1890, pages 23-32, 401: Gust’s book, pp. 42-70). 

fi) What is the teaching of the New Testament? 

(2) Forms of appeal and reliance? 

(3) Influence of such appeals and reliance ? 

2. Relation to other Churches. Societies and Missions? 

(i) In what fields and in what forms of work can there be economy 
by means of co-operation ? 

{2) Church union on mission fields? 

IV. Estimates and Appropriations. 

(1) Does the Mission examine and criticise estimates in detail ? 

(2) Is the grade of appropriations too high ? 

(3) What is the effect of the distinction on the estimate sheets be¬ 
tween "old” and "new” work? 

(4) The fiscal year and the best time for considering estimates? 


1. Shall the policy be that of renting or of building and owning? 

2. Style of mission buildings? 

3. Ownership and maintenance of buildings used by the native 

4. Character, location and maintenance of Sanitariums? 


I. Methods and Development. 

1. Policy as to emphasis and development, as between fields? 

2. How far shall tangible results determine the Board’s policy? 

3. What policy as to methods and enlargement shall be pursued in 
each Mission ? 

ri. Review by Board. 

Annual consideration by the Board of fields, to study each and 
review the policy? How and when? 

III. Visitation by Repreaeutatives of Board. 

(1) Should the missions be visited periodically by the Secretaries? 

(2) Will the benefits of such visitation justify the expense of travel 
and loss of time from oflicial duties ? 

(3) Plow often should each field be visited ? and should the stay be 
short or prolonged ? 

(4) Should the Secretary make an excursion to one or two missions? 
or an extended tour, occupying a year ? 

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Preparation and character of candidates, 

(1) Qualifications, 

(2) Is the Seminary education adequate? 

(3) Could special training he given to candidates under 
appointment? If so, what? 

(Authorities) Shanghai Conference 1890, p8gel45. 
Shanghai Conference, 1890, page 162. London Confer¬ 
ence, Vol. II., page 1-26. 

"The Missionary Agent, " Oust, page 193. 

II, Salary and perquisites. 

(1) What are the perquisites? 

(2) Would not a consolidated salary be preferable? 

(3) Should salary vary with fluctuations in exchang 

(Missionari es) 

(4) Are the salaries wit h perqui sites now excess¬ 
ive? If so, in what Missions or stations? “Jr i., 

(X-iiCf, A. 

Ill# Mode of Life « 

(1) Is it extravagant? 

(2) Does it tend to produce a chasm between missionar¬ 
ies and natives? liiS-, 

(3) iVhat proportion of time is given to actual 
mission work? 

(4) Relations of missionaries to foreign residents, 
extent and influence? '• f, y7i^. 


(Shanghai Conference, 1890, page 23 - 32 ). 

/atc, ^d<N>>6tjy<^ (t, 'it'-^Um. tty 





(1) no missionaries have a thorough working 
iQdge of* ths l&inguage? 


(23 Is ihere reason to believe that 
missionaries are so indolent or so injudicious as 
monition or recall? 

any of our 
to warrant ad- 



there a lack of spiritual power and 


(4) How may there efficiency be increased? 

(5) Would a fom of personal report embracing 
searching and comprehensive questions be advisable? 

Should men be encouraged to go to the field unmarried 
so, to what extent? 




VI. Laymen. 

(1) Should laymen be sent; if so, for what purposes 
and to what extent? 

VII. Vaoations on the field and health trips. 

(1) Where spent? 

(2) How far oan they be utilized for work? 

(3) How ordered and who pays expense of? 



(See "Methods of Mission Work", Nevius) 

I. Churoh organization and method 

(1) Is it wise to impose upon the native ohuroh the 
forms of organization and methods of work prevailing in the United 
Stat es? 

(2) Are the ohurohes dominated by the missionaries? 

(2) Are all unordained missionaries members of Native 


II, Native Christians, 

( 1 ) 

What is the character of native Christians? 

(Native Church and Agents) 


2 . 

( 2 ) 

native customs? 

How far should they be encouraged to abandon 
(Shetnghai Conference, 1890, pages 603-609) 

(3) To what extent are native Christians dependent 
on the missionaries? 

(4) Hoes the placing of ministers, supported by the 
Board, over congregations weaken the people’s sense of responsi¬ 
bility for the spread of the Gospel? 

Ill, Self-support. 

(1) To what extent has it been attained? 

(2) Are pastors installed over churches non-self¬ 

supporting in whole or in part? 

Native Church and Agents) 


(3) VJhat is the attitude of native helpers on the sub¬ 


(4) Bearing on self-support of the methods and habits 

of giving. 

(5) Are salaries so guaranteed by the Mission as 
that any failure of the people to meet their obligation must be 
met by the Boani? 

( 6 ) 

To what extent is self-support possible? 

(7) How develop self-support? (Paper by Hr. Bunoan, 
Report of New York Conference, January 1894, 

1890, pages 415-438). 

Shanghai Conference, 

(Native Churoh and Agents) 



IV, Native Agen ts. 

(1) How do salaries oompare with those of same class 
of people in other callings? 

(2) Character and qualifications. 

(3) Supplementary training in Conferences etc? 

(4) What classes or grades of native agents have we? 

(5) Attitude towards natives trained in Aicerioa. 


Relations to missionaries 



1 Education. 

1. Number of schools, location and character, classes 
of, as day, boarding, thaological etc# 

2. Number of missionaries employed, and how much time 
devoted to the work? 


3: How many native agents employed in this work, and 

how many of these are Christians? 

4. Education of native helpers. 

(1) Vfliat aid do they receive? And effects of 
such aid on students? 

( 2 ) 

Is any manual labor required? 

(3) ivhat practical training 

in evangelistic work? 

(4) To what extent should study and practical work be 


(5) Is the school of apprenticeship system (training 

and preparation in practical work by individual missionaries) preferab 

(9) Is the course of study adapted to the needs of the 
men and the fields? 

5. High class education. 

( 1 ) To what extent is it or should it be given to non- 
Christians of either sex? 

(2) Total cost. To what extent self-supporting? 
(5) Kvangel1st 1c character of? 


(Methods) 3 

6. Do our methods educate children away from their 
own people? 

7. Use of other languages than the vernacular. 

8. What proportion of pupils from Christian and heath¬ 
en homes? 

9. What religious instruction is given and by whom? 

(1) Are some schools so developed and enlarged as 
to secure magnitude and pretentiousness at tie ex¬ 
panse of evangelistic usefulness? 

10. To what extent are the expenses of schools melt 
bp the people? 

11. How are the schools controlled? By Mission, 
Station or Individual? 



II Bvangeliatio. 

I. How many miesionaries engaged in? And what portion 
of time given to it? 

2. Itineration. Kow muoh is done? What propoi»» 
tion Of the year devoted to it. How directed? 

3. How many natives employed? and by whom paid? How 
ia their work directed and controlled? 

4, Is there lack of faith in, and of effort for, the 
conversion of adults? 

5. Are all desirable foms of evangelistic work made 

use of? 

6 . 

evangelist o^ 

Sliould not the missionarj'’ be regarded as an 
a direotor of evangelists rather than a pastor? 




III. ^dustrit^ C,.,, 


1. What responsibility have mission and mission¬ 
aries for the social condition of converts? 3'au-.i.<^e Attv^ /A^rkl^ 


a. Where should industrial work be introduced and 
to what extent? 

3. What should be its character and its relation 

to other departments of the work? ^ ,' 

IV. T^U^MjCaI 

l.V/hat should be the character and extant of medical work? 

a. Is there a temptation to build up larg;e medical es¬ 
tablishments at the expense of their missionary character and in¬ 


(Me thods) 


26 ^-^0 

3. To what extent is medical work evangelistioT 

4, Is it wise to send trained nurses from the 

United States? 

5. Is payment for treatment and medioinss ex¬ 
pected or insisted on? 

V. Printing a nd Printing Presses. 

I. How many printing establishments and presses 
are connected with our Missions? 

2, How far should they be used for other than 

our own Mission purposes and needs? 

3 , b What relation should such establishments 
sustain to the Mission and the Board? 



Z4’ ^ 

*• Is it wise 
presses of individual missionariei 
end under their own control? 

to permit the introduction of 
or stations for their own use 

5. Ho» f,r ahouu ordaln.d a, 

.h.r,.a .i« 

VII. Woman's Work, 

1. Relation of wives of missionaries to active 


2. Is the present ratio of single women to tte 
entire missionary force satisfactory? 

3. Woman's work is included in the other gen. 

eral divisions of the subject. 




I• Home Administration. 

1. Wiat is the Home Work, and how should it be 
apportioned and organized? 

2, Relation of the Board to its sources of reven¬ 
ue, and our ecclesiastical system? 

3. Relation of the Board to the other Boards 
of the Church in disseminating information and stimulating giving. 


4, 'Selation of Women's Board and Societies to this 

5, Development of lajj'' interest. Men's 

leagues etc 



6 . Question of special objects. 

7, Literature of the Board. 

8 . Home expenditure, is it excessive, if so, how 

re duo e it? 

II. Administration Abroad. 

1. Is government by Missions the best? If so, 

are their present powers and functions adequate? 

2, Would greater efficiency be secured by the appoint¬ 

ment of a Superintendent, especially in our larger Missions? 

3. Relation of the Mission to tie Presbytery and 

the Native Church 




4. Relation of the Mission to the individual 

Does it exercise the control requiiced by the 

5 . Sinployment of Business Agents to take 

charge of the treasury and other secular interests. 

Ill, Relations At Hone & A broa d. 

1, Relations of Missions and Board to Govern¬ 
ments. (Shanghai Conference, 1890, pages 23-33-401, Gust's book 

pp, 4^70), <1^ 


What is the teaching of the New Testament? 

( 2 ) 

Forms of appeal and reliance. 




Influence of such appeals 

and reliance. 

2 . 

Relation to other churches, 

Societies and Missions 

can there be 

( 1 ) 

economy by 

In What fields and in what forms of work 
means of co-operation? 

(2) Church mission or Mission fielcfe . 

IV. Estimates and Approi-riatinng. 

1. hoes the Mission examine and criticise esti¬ 

mates in detail? 

Is the grade of appropriations too high? 

is the effect of the distinction 
on the estimates sheets between "old" and "new” work? 


fiscal year and the best time for 

considsring estimates* 



i. Shall the pol^sy be that of renting or 

of building and owning? 

2. Style of Mission Buildings, 

3. Ownership and maintenance of buildings 

used by the Native Church, 

4. Character, location, and maintenance of 

frjSyo §-^ 'itxy-, Av^ 0, <V ? 




1. Policy as to emphasis and development, 
as between fields. 

2. How far shall tangible results determine 

the Board's policy? 

3. What policy as to method and enlarganent 

shall be pursued in each Mission? 

4, Annual consideration by the Board of 

fields, to study each and review the policy. How and when? 

(/ acJs-riK. 1. 

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3 ^ (.^ 3 ) 



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<*) Aldod odue^itlonal lae^ltuUoo* ur» at Uberty to lapart 
rallsLoua laatruotloo, provldod that - 

t •hall bo oo^soUod to attwid any rallalciun 

^ “f Obsw.«o* la a faith other than hi* oia aa a oondltloa 
oonUnucaoa la aa aldad oduoatlonal 
‘iltoA.d ther.>to If ha, or hla par«it or guai-dlaa 

*"** Infoma tba aathorltlaa of 
Institwatlofa of hie ohjeetion la writing, 

“*■ tolng which any raUgloua oba^rtranoa la 
pr .Ttla^ or taetruoUon In roilgioua aubjaota la glv« at any naotiae 
of 4® ald^ aiJuwUcm^ laatltntioa *«11 be In tha beginning or at tha 
and, or at the beginning and and of such aaeting* 

KMiq>tlon fron relifjloua instiuotioa or obanrwonoo ahall taka 
•ffucrt, fro® tho ooDBancacent of a school or oollaga tern, 

AppUoationa fbr exanptloo should, thar-fora, bo n^da at tho eoDoanea. 
aont of a tons, Bit with tha sancUon of the Head Master or 
Principal, B*UBpUoo aay take af fect ut any tins durtng tho eurranoy of 
A t^XV,/ 

(b) Oaalded SagllBh ineUtnUons are at liberty to aaka tholr own 
arrangaaeota, bit tha tiao devotad to rellglcnia Inatiuotion ahonld ba kept 
entirely aaparaLo ftoa ■toat'hleto la ragoired for aaculur Inatruotlsa* 

py oow^MCE 

to apjOy for govoaimcBt erants, a re^. "“** a*ln* pemlatlM 

^ the atUtud* of variou* bodiaa dOTalopawt of the eltuatlon. 

deairahl,. In the raporTon I^a 2d queeUc, .«,2’ 

pa^ea 2^275, 1. giv« « brief^aSjy o^l^i dL^’ ^ . 

a ^soianoa clauaa by the non^rlrtlLa davelo^t of the daalp, fcj 
▼arlous Mlaaloa bodioa. “-vnrletiana of India and of the pe.'ioUona of 

pwsphlet pubiioation of a 

allosed to attend raUeioua lna‘ruc+i™f “>17 tboae be 

H. ional Hiaeion.*y Co£m, to Sf foUo222 T"”"* ^ 

oonvlotion that aU Ittaaion a^c^tion ^ to thair 

toatruetioa to the Bible. to 1917 tT^ n ^ radically Ohriatlan and Inoluda 
the United Provincea, took thS SiUTO^STthT^f 2 HlaBlooe of 

theHBeleBa to the p-omoUon of a pu^ a««iw* '*•’»*» 

not willing to accept, a general Ltorfri ^ a^O- tlMj (b) that they risre 
to eo-ciUed atogle aohool areesj (o)^ ^ 2 period ey« 

being Introduced into tho education^ rorl’ ^ douBe 

such aohoola «,d ooUegea aa could 2t be 

to-aid. ” ‘"‘rnea on eithout govemaent grant a- 

.o j:c.‘Srfs.x:‘ p“s 3=;*.';^3 'r- »”«>" "«•• =' 

»«. «^ted Provinces pasoed the Oonaeienoe Clause leglalatlon. but 

a^e^ to postoone the rtthdraoing of granta-in-ald fron achoola. ehloh 

toe Horto India Mlaaioa and toe following resolution waa adoptedf- "That it is 
toe opinion of the Mission th ^t attendance upon instnoUon to Bible eught, as a 
Batter or prlnoipi®, to be roquireu of all students In mr educational 
tostitutlons, (Afflrn.^tivo votes, 2S| negative, a.)* Later to toe Beeting 
tola action was re-oonalderad and the vote reversed, of^lmatlve, .'3, and 
negative, 27. Ho ever, it o o dotenained that "under the cireuast ances, it la 
not sdso to :>.coept govemment gi-ants-to-aid under the eonaolenee dlanae, except 
for those stooola that are priEurily for Chrlst.ianB," and "under the 
clreuast.anceB, it iB not wiBO to give up the plan of requiring attendance on 
Bible CluBaeB in our eduoatlanal inatitutlons, (af;’lni:itlvo voteB, 27i 
negative, 17)» 

These actions caao bol'ore the Board and in 1921 it took action that "it 
oould not, for the sake of retaining govemmant mitBldles, su-’-ender the right 
to give Christian teaching iS a re^ailar Integral part fUmlahad in Its stooola." 
Tbs action of thB Punjab nissioo, revising its poaltion of previous years and 
accepting toe oonsolenea clause for Btora Bun and Bahnranpar Schools for a 
period of three years, was thus approved by the Board and it eas voted to bring 
toe natter to the attention of toe General Asseably, to various pi'cea. Dr. 
Speer speaks of the right of Aill libe:'ty of rellgi°’^* teaching and tofluenoa 
as being a natter of principle, as, for exaiqjle, to Board Letter • 3, doted 



yabpuury 20, 19 '5» Uoraover, if th« ground of our rejooUoa of th» 
alauao iB our ooavictloa that In prinolplB vre cannot Burrander for a graot- 
iB-aid our fuU llbsrty and rBligious teaching and Influence, can we accept 
the Dnited Provincos' legislation, stso though its effect la such a s(aiool ss 
the Ddipa Olrle' Sdiool, eoulr. bo Bllghtt If no quesUoa of principle Is 
Involved, then. It is a fair question rfiather we could not accept the conselenee 
clause for « good a«iy other institutions than those speclfiod by ttia Punjab 
Hlsslon. " 

Again in Board Letter July 18, 19?S, Dr. Speer calls attention to the 
previous posltloa of the India KloBlone that it was a matter of principle 
soyas **If th® India Uisslons or the Inetltutions aro now to pursue the 
optional policy. It seema to no that they ought, Juat for the ssVe of their 
good naaa, to declln to reoaiva Wie grants-in-ald. ..... Hot can thay now 
change their position and accept the granta-ln-ald without laying theaaal ea 
open to suapidon of setting the financial clrcumateneas above the 
couelderatloa of principle,* 

In 19"4, (Board Letter 54, pages 1^), the nhole matter waa laid before 
the Qoaeral Aa-^onbly. It was considered bs^ the Standing Comnlttea of Porelim 
Hlssiona of which Prof. Roboj-t ftlok ii'ilsoB tob the Chalmaa, The poaltloa of 
the Board was put before the Commit teo by correapondance and the poaltion of 
the Punjab HtBsion was presented both in correspondence and by foreign 
nlssionarlse in person. The Cc^ittee'e reeoaaeadHtlons, as adopted by the 
General Asseably, was thot *lt could not, for the sake of retslnl^ Govomnant 
subaidlas, eirrender the right to give Christian teochlng as a regulor and 
Integral part of the ednoution fumlehad in Its aehoola.* (Thlo recoanoad^. 
tion was greeted with applauee.) On the basis of this action, the Board 
directed the aurrsiderlng of government grants to the Punjab Hlssloa schools 
aa veil as to those of the North India Hlssloa, at the some time assuring the 
Hisulou that *lt al^t feel that it would take what time nl^t be nooeesary 
this year to effect the required sdjustmeate." In oaiacntlttg on the etton of 
the Generral Asaenbly, JDr. Speer atates that *lt did eesa to the Standing 
Committee of the Asaeably that there was a uatter of principle Involved ;ind 
that this natter of principle hod not bean reooved by, or dlsapreared In, uny 
change of olrouastanoes in India on which the Pxutjab letters laid audi 
oBphaals, The principle It eaema to me Is thlal Shall our Hiselinrs 
surrender tiielr absolute control over the religious InfLuenes and teaching 
and aotivitioB of our schools for tho sake of complying with the gov^mment 
regulations that .?« do not need to conply with, unlees we desire the grante- 

In-old, which aro conditioned upon oo^llanee.Our surrender of 

govenusent grants—in—aid does not neuj that "e are to re«iuir9 Bible etudy and 
attendance on worehip fror all pupils, imlass we ballwve that such requlmwat 
Is helpful to the alaslonary purpose of the school. ..... Hake your Bible 
tea(ijlnT and Chapel service optional. If you think best, but do not for one 
moment accept a reejuiroaent whldj abridges or handicaps or oompromlsas the 
use of every opportunity and oveiy subject for study as a vehicle for dimet 
Christian Influence and toachlng." 

51th reforenoo again to this action of the General assembly, in Board 
Latter 56, pages three and following. Dr. Speer cuotei a eoaversatlon of Hr. 

Ho lard with Professor R. D. Wilson, tdio said thnt the action of tho 
Conalttee was the only action that could be taken rftor full coosi- eratl u 
of the whole aatter and who amphcislsed the point that th# 'xctlon of ths 
Comittoo, and so of tho General Assembly, undoubtedly reprsieots the opinion 
of the whole Church. 

Interestingly aiough, the Punjab Hissloo at Its meeting 1* the foUowlng 


Ootobor, r«que8tod the Bo u-d "to oeralt 1 + - . 

noa-airl6tienB» toat provision of th» Dnltad Pmvinn ** *^**,^^ schools for 
Uon shioJ. po^isits .xtssptionli^ to* fo^ 

For a period of five years only and th«+ ♦h 4 . v t- •-toing to a pupil, . 

an sd^orinant." In a naoortodum adopts^tp thc’«i“IiOT 
that the apparoot revereal of ito position St«e» iqm 

of Bind on toe «ain issue, but U ae^ n toe dlso^„« i* *“»«e 
involved betoean toe oonscl«pe olan.e *^1 onfllot ie 

teaching and fuU evcngollBUc opportunity rlpht* of Bible 

Provlaaes' regulation night bo used by a^-«>r) BtlL n™^*!*^*^ '’^.*'** 
vay SB to ere .tly ourtall Bible teachtorS^rllul’^ton r**^***" “ 

"The tilsBion itoulti limiediately revicm to« sti™ influence, in toleh care, 

ncintain toe -irlstU .ffertL«rarof ^iTlte rchill^'* to 

clause oeosB to the Hlsslan not such a reerrl^il^!^^?’ *’!** Proaont 
acUon of toe Board and appiwed by toelm^S ^ 

surrender tos right to rive ftariatluo ..*1^*^^? Blnoo it does not 

toe education iVnalahed in its atocolo. I^ffers Bo^y*'th*^ ^*4 

. .=»««,! «.a». ftS ”,2X.“SSSC:‘ 

In ansver to tots reproeentaUon of toe Punjab Kiasion, perniBBion wan 
-^erinenta period for too Cehrai^ 

kjtohools^ but th® fio<Ai^d ffus uawllHaff to ftnrpov® ^hi» ai nn ni .d t ^ ^ 

required Bible study «nd of rej.ulred daily^ohapol «orahip il 

toe Punjab. In MPT, approval vaa gtveTfor to. SnSln^ 

for another t^ years. In 13JS0, toe B^rd approved the co^UnuSt.“f ttr 

proj.^t atatuB wlto regard to the attitude of toe India mealonB toward too 

conaclence cl«i^ w>d toe oonUnuanae of the oxporiBsnt in Delira bun tod^ 

Lturon/Lt ‘ <=‘>--1. 


-OQBbCliaiCg CLmo:;!;: 

declared toat its sohoole in S^iatvaipur and 
Dehra bun not beaa Injurloualy affootod by to. aoeepttoc. of the oonecimo. 
^auao. On toe contrary, the CauncU note* ( In 19?5 Blmjtes, page 19, tost 
there haeaot bean "a eingie request for excuse froia rollgiotta exerclaes or 
teitch^ngs. On toe other h:aid, the fomor intoreat in the Bible courses 
^^uo» »8 before, !?e believe tb^^t too nos arrangoaent la beneflolnl to the 
niDie t-aohiag in ttsit too t-.u,ohor» aro nor" alert and onxlouB to kee- up toe 
Intor- st of the puplla in the Bible." 

4 ® Oomlttao, appointed ly the Punjab Miealoa to study the situation 

in too City Girls' School, Saharinpur and the Dehre bun Boys' High School, 
reported toat toer' h id been no change in the ikitood of t. aching'or in the 
attitude of the bpys toward roligioua instruction and toat no requeats had boea 
■ade to have boys exeaptod fron Bible ciaases. With regard to the future, the 
CamiBlttas "believe that soboola on toe voluntary bosls will be In at le;»st as 
strong a position for the atolovlng of our ai» as toose on the coupulBoiy basle. 
It la bslisvrdf further, that they *111 be os aasentlally Christian la 
accepting tola as tos method of Bible t v>tolng as toose tdiidi operate on toe 
bijsls of required attendance at religious exerolsss.* 

T3ii8 experience of the Punjab Hlasloa with toe acoei tanee of the oonaclenoe 
clause finds eonflnatlon from other stoools in the Gnltod Provinces and from 
varlou. sarvays that hi ve be* made. In the Allahabad Agrloultuml Institute 
end Holland Hall, toe exeeptlone asked have been very few. In Lucknow Christian 
ColXegs only four or five oxeaptlone out of 750 students have b«>ti asked. In 

4 . 4 ^ 

St. Joto*# OoU«s*, "Tb* Buabsr of oua s ia *ioh studaata or thoir eu;irdl*i« 

h.iva tfikon -.aTant^ :. of the clauae, has beea neallgtble, not nors th_n tno or three 
Oises in ajjy one yau-rs. ..... On the other hand, the f-et students, or their 

givos us a gr -uter ««., of freedoe 

in our Blblo wo h beforo*** In t^mffarfl ♦« l .. l ul n«..A. «' w 

Jrt.<tei:i«t Is a ;da that "no parent has r.ver applied for his boys'*'«aBptic>n fron **** 
tho tcripture cla«». Moradsbad coses e ro,,ort thati "la tS^ery^IrSt 

attended the blUe cIubbos. olnoo then not a single toy has refused, thouf4j\/ 
f u^salott ^ ask the guardians on the .idnlaslon foras If toey h.^o any 
objection to th^ wards attending Scripture teaching. In sy .j?«irlsn: e, both“t 
alnora and Boradab^d, ve not Suffered any kind of loss, in our Bible’work." 

Tho Llndflsy OoBslssloa oBj-hnslaes that "the oonyerslon in the ol.^ days bocass 
not so BU* frro the Qhrlstiij* Instnotion la tho eoUoge or high school as fron 
those .pUet take slther to in.dylduals or to fecial parties l^tod to ^eet 
prlyatoly together with the nlsolonary", and that the growth and the else of tho 
coUeges and the burdens that tho ncabera of too staff have had to boar has node 
it Inersfistogly difficult to maintain close pe sonul contact with the students. 

On pages ZKS- SI, of the report, there Is a discussion of oonpulsory religious 
education yersus oonsciraice clause. They find that a gr.tor danger than the 
use of tho clausa by those »ho hostila to Chrlotlaalty is that of falling to 
enforce the oonpuleory whore it nolntulaB, With regi.rd to tho latter they aayj 
'5Ms we find to be the case oor-,- oftun thm wo could wish. Tfdtlng tho eltu -tlon 
as a whole, we would express our Judgsdnt th. the eonsolonee daui o la the for* 

In which it Is how la operiti.on in those proyincee which reculro It, e.g., 

Onitwd Frovlncec and Buraia, has not Injuriously affeotod the roligloua to .eJilag or 
influsnce of the ooUegas] but ca the contrary, that It h is, la some oollegee t 
least, made the ooDditloas of religious teaching nope satisfactory. Itc affect 
has been to rollcwo tho Scripture clasuas of toe pressnee of thoee fee who rnally 
object to than and iddose attendance toer«''ore hanss inatoad of helping rdllglous 
teaching. We think, thererore, that any propoBuls In other provinces to 
introiiucs the coneoience clause In this form should not only be willingly 
accoptad but may idsuly bo anticipated." Further they say, on page ZB, "We 
recognise that their position as parts of a system of edue.tlon reoognlasd by 
govonuiant must of necesclty impose certain Usdtatlons i^on them with respect 
to their attitude toaurd toolr nan-Cbrlatian students, butt we bellove that the 
socaptaaoe of these Uadtutltnis Is not only consistent ith their Chrlstija 
purpose tut In many eases may aid In Its realisation." 

With regard to the question of principle, they say that they b..ys found tbra- 
selvos obliged to ulstlaguieh bstoaen mattr.rB of prlndplo '>nd cuestlons of 
application. "So tiT 08 the question of pdnolplo 1# oonoemed, 'O believo that 
the advocates of the conscience clausa are In the richt, provldad the Issue be 
really one of conscience and not of national or religious propaganda. We 
believe, therefore, tout the colleges will be well advised thenselves to accept 
this principle voluntarily and to make pravlBlon for its application in trays that 
are helpAil and not hampering. We are not blind to toe possibility, haw»y«r, 
toot a form of oonBOlenoe clause might be adopted ."blch ^tiouid In f tot provaat 
the Christian colleges from making their religious tituching oantrol. Sooner 
toon subsit to such r strlcti<m they should forego govemuant grants, aarlously 
as thay might curtail the extent of toeir Influsnce." dnd ataln, on page f7, 
they sayj ".^e believe that this principle is entirely sound. The spiritual 
message of tho Bible Is so vital that no educ-tion Oon be s.tlafaotory which 
does not provide an understanding of that message. It Is not only tbs right 
but the duty of the college to dstormlas the content of Its curiioliiuB, <«d as 
hsvs elsewbei^ glvm reasons for believing tout on purely odueetlonal grounds 
Scripture classes form on ssssntial part of that curriculum. let though the 

uad«r prat, Jt cSSuon"^^ t,, raoopilaa th-1 

reaction rulnouB to the effectlvaneo. or^U^"o^a * 

poBlSon, efC*521^rao*Sd'^olioS^ “PP^’cUr-tely th. ,»«, 

j^.atar d^gar in tho "laeul.ting^ict^/i^* liade^y CoaBi.aio, , 

”0no of the erltioiMB fre^ua^ ^io2 ^ adminiatrUott.* 

■ord and Bors inBulittlng Mnsalf ?? th"**, the ■iBulon-.-r 1^ 

^t the aarly ■i.Blon trl«B rubbed shoSd.rB rtSf 

the prosaat generation iire aioof. S!« r ^ “'‘® "*» *** «>oa' of 

otlter institutione o.tahllshad tlie »<*oolt and 

o^ent that they abeorb nuoh of tt,o to mxcH an 

that pereonal, friendly oonUcte «ltfln1l«B have^'Jff^^d""'’^ 

rocoBBendation'’it*^^'that°f^ the 

^derlyinc the eoasoionee oUm® ^ oehoola of the prinolploB 

«,fti^c^ that 

(?age*U;^-lS“r“ ^ »oom«rl»e ^d*S«r“*f.uSon*B^La.» 

laesiOTs! ^Le sJ!" *?* Survey ComUtteeB of our 

.ay. that "therfu^^^ »d 

the Bocial Ufe of the ceoSo. oerhare dortoinoy a gr,>/t influence upon 

In training,® Iha »orth Ldla^MiaBioB Surr^ ^ non-Chrietlim efeident* 

oonaideration to th.- nstterof ^ ^nittee gtre detailed 

thHt It be iiec«pted, clauae with thw finid reoowiondatlcm 

financial PiovlBlon,”ln*ctae of°toe^su^a5*ortn»''af queatlon of 

^d. and, thereftre, Aether it coul: be ub«I for reS*^ 

b. ^ letter, Ur. Speer Indiooted that the noney ■Isfat 

oKi^ ®® o^oo ■antlont'd raaSding a speolol appeal to th. Church in 

^ "iCcB up the govemaaot grants. The need for using this eoney, 
hOBovar, for tee consolance clause grant vbb rendered unaeoeBB^ry by the 

oontlnuo granto unUl tee spring of 10 4 M»d the naoey 
was dlsmteted in tho agreed ratio of 40, S5 and .1X .mioag the India HiaslonB. 

-» P**®" «“ •»»» regained a reourrtnr 

pant for tee throe UlBsloas Binoe that ttas. This eas in acoordanoe with a 
•tetsmant in e later letter froa tea Bo.-.rd, lagust 10, 19 Z, page 9, «ta re it 
was recooised th-t it vould not bo quit® fair to charge ■this apodal aergeney 

&Qdd of Rortli Xndi.& Mission suralnst. "fehii 1 K fvnn 

Council to distribute to the Invjia Bioaloo."^*’ oU«r» grant to the India 

Bade tlirough*t^ Dr.^o^r* 18,600 dollars 

as foUo'TSi- (Bodjfd iiettsr 27, p. l)’»It la a ^ 4 .^''* oonnaotl m were 

appropriations for the now yeir proilde to! ^ ** 

Hisslons received a year ago, includine the natlw currency which the 

frow. tlio general fund placed In its haids ^ Council 

addition to the grant of last year ^^'to. C ^ “*• 

Bipnleaent has boen added ttiie year of 18 800 ^dtributed, a new 

of the C<«noll. I pre.uB; Kunil "r^:"fi toii'’!!^^ »*P««>lturc 

and consarvativ® course which it hnd nurauad to +i * *'” aattor the same cureful 

would be well if the c!un^l ^ 

the rrcurring obUgatlons for 10 l-’B. We aball tone ** not to Involve 

appropriations for that year can be sUll further inoi^aaed tot®* 

provide for the possibility thot this can not bf, dw!. and if * 

1 ^ in the Onit^ Provinces h :Ve to be »a^Lde?oS*irtoe .Xn? ZTl^ 

the Board can not further Increase the appropriations, than It^^! h. 

us to have this 118,600 A^eHcan gpld w^UTs tTrll,VrZt yea^! ^d”' 

whic* we shall hops can be continued for 10?-i- 6, free for use at tha/tlni to 

loss of the ^ent^ln-aid, unless, as w. rtiall all hope ^y br“e^a e 
tte ^eminent ^11 aodify its rofulatlons so as to mow us to go on with oar ’ 
testltutions restrictions upon our froedo* of reUglous te ohin*.* The 

tor!'!?!! ysth of this .oney as an eBergency ito Sd distrllu?:; the r!st 
to the three Ml8&4.aoe in tho regular proportion with the reservation that it be used 
only for non-recurring items <«d bo avmaUo for further Cou^fertr^n the 
foilooing year, (See I.C.Minutao 192?, pa^-e 4X 42(7)) 

It will be noted in these instructions thvt this a<xi 3 f was sent to the India 
Council, for the year preceding the need for ropl.'.oem«>t of govemnmt grants, the 
being that it should bo used for noo-reourrlng Itoos in case 
the hoard could not further Inore. se the aprropriatlons for 19^4-' % ippa’-enUy 
ms money night be used for any of the needs of the UlssioBS and not nerely for 
the replacement of govemmfflJt grants. L.-^ter on locount of the fi»anol:a 
8ltuati>sa of the Chur<* aoae doubt erven arose as to whether it would be continued 
in 19 a<l and -;5. In Boord Letter ’9, dated July 18, 192?, papa 20, Dr. Speer 

advises that they should "bold the mtire aaouat intact so far as its use, if it 
can be repeated next year, is eonoai-ned," 

This int'^rprett.tion is further oonflroad by later letters from Dr. Speer. In 
Bo:.rd Letter SI, page 2, he says* " Baking sqjpropriations to the India 
Missions for the year 19 ' -24, the Board placed at the disposal of the India 
Council the sum of 18,6 j 0 dolLsrs for its diotributlon, with the advice that, if any 
of this Kras required to replace the government grants-ln-aid which might be 
’idthdrawn, it should be so ueedj that if it c s not so required, it Aould bo used 
for non-recurring ««q)endltur9e this year in oroer that, in ease the Bonrd could 
continue this increase for 19i’4-''B, it might be available to replace tiie withdrawn 
grants." This, horover, is qualified by a later statenant in the sraie letter, pa:;e Si 

"As to the financial probloa, I think the situation will be brighter thm -ra h ve 
feared, or at any rat e, I hope and believe that the Bo ird will do everything In its 
power to make it sure that the Indie Missions will not hove to bear both the 
regular cut which is fulling to all the Missions and the special cut caused by the 
withdrawal of the government grants. It was in eaticipati'n of Just this presmt 
contingency that the 40,800 rupees were adds ‘ to the ^propriatlons for the India 
Miaslons through the India Council for the year 19??- '• lou will renenbar ny 
writing at the tioe, indicating that this addition was nade with the possible with¬ 
drawal of the govemaent grants in Bind, and that, if the grants wars not withdrawn 

7 . 

during the yer.r 19S5- 4, ttalB anount shoald b. u-»ri 

80 tiv.t ^ Ciea of its oontlauwc* for tS yww 1 ^ 4 ! 5 *:q>anditurefl, 

make up for the sithdram gr(*ntD. Further^ +L it jtouB be aTiil:.ble to 

X92S-S4, included, in addiUoa to thee, 

wpplenentary grunts which had been added fo I* “* ““ti^^wco of the teo 
the India Council, naaaly. Re. 15!o30/.^*Jh!‘^r ippropriatlons in 19?'-’5 through 
and ^5,030 laerioan gold "to be * «*ergan(qr fond 

for the native 'sork clusoeB Including hlirh ** the Council snong the three mission* 
appropriation*, na^^r t^rtwS 

additional npj.ropriati’jn of 19 5-'4 aw>nn 4 ' "*<* oontlnueu in 19' -■><, and the 
increase given ik ias p^h^J*Z^\wrV'f^ the 

se have hoped th^t cBo^gh of thie o^d b- « ^ ’p«'Ourrlng ffxpendltvir*?*., but 

lncro.a, which eua nor^^t S reSn^lt™e^"i° «>upvl«ent the 19 r- - 4 ’ 

■ake up for most at least of the elthc'.raHn^gront^"^’^* to 


the appropriatiiMs for the year 19?<-?5 in th^ UlsslonB, any redviction in 

calculated in the aaount to \ ’>• 

at the disposal of the China and India Councils it °aT*^ frrants placed 

for distribution at the dieoretlon of thrS^mena <if the year 19 -^4 

laaaiauch tx& theuo spacial grants to tha InrHs Ui J f’-irthsr th*tt, 

<^Pr^Prhtions, and further, In^L^ras toe .rf^ds 
resulwr appropriations for 19?4- 8. therefore the C™jee<l 
be authorised to isako a special appeal after Anril first for a . 

“ “"“jw • 2s KXT 

!dji<* have been surrendorc^d for oonoolence's sake, in the sun ^ 

gold or as s'ueh thereof as ni^t be necessaiy.- ' ““ Anericua 

In this connection. Dr, Speer states that "a rr . t Mnhrala h .e w„_ 

fii rd^rl *h ^“0““ “tsBions to the Churdi, of‘the action of^ie 

oonsele^^ ^ ^ 'lawiUlnenesa to accept grants-ln-aid conditioned by the 

oonbcience clause. This ^phasis resulted in the action of too OMerid Aswaably 

individuals to contribute *' 6,000 Amaric^ 
e^cat|v'n<^ 9 <?n^<d ja c , t fiapd , la order that toe educatlona work 
in India may not suffor from withdrawal of govemment grunts. 

and increases slre-aiy given of 16,000 

«dJ3,6OT dollars were for the general work of the three UlseioiiB with the vdse 
^viso that, M CiSd OF MiSj;D, it should be used for the replacement of gov-unnent 
^ants. In 19?,6, however. Dr. Spear la a letter Bpoe>t* of "funds provided for 
their support in lieu of the government grants nhlch hive not dlnlnished the 
Appropriations for the India aission and uhlch would not be available for the 
other work of toase Missions," 







March 22, 19a 



June 20, 1922 



August 10, 1922 



SoptaBb‘>r 26, 1922 



SoveKbt r 9, 1922 



Fsbruajy 20, 1925 



Mfrch 14, 1925 

1 (») 


July 18, 1923 



February 26, 19;--6 



April 8, 1924 



Juno 6, 1924 



JHiue SO, 1924 



Fabniaiy 17, 1926 



February 2, 19”6 



February 11, 1927 



February 14, 1929 



February 7, 1950 


Fln&nciul Efi'eots nad Provision on Account a£ 


Qenaral letter No. 3 

M^.rdi 16, 1922 



June 20, 1922 



August 10, 19’5 



M:.rch 14, 1923 



July 18, 1923 



February 'S, 1924 

2 rnd 5 


April 8, 1924 



June 6, 1024 



Fabruary 17, 1S25 


Report on India ‘Cid pago^ £59<-£7S 

The Christiwi CoUeaciK in Indlni I»indea/ Coacission, paf es 102» and 
F.>ct>-Flm;ers* Report, Vol. IV., pages 50, 510 and 511, 

Supplenactery Report of Appraisal Conralssion Vol. 1, pa^eB 11’-US 

Dalirn, IniJin, Korol’. SEnd, 190*. 

Cj' floor }.;r. Spoors- 

It Is 0 ion,; ti Klncor yovir latter on lloalon : ol- 
ioy ccmo to hona. it l,os clolmod eoinewV.iyt of :iy tlmo nnU my thougl.t 
bUt n,>t until no;7 hove I iolt that i could umlortoJce to v,rito. I on 
.•’>0 modsrotor of f-roahytory of vlilch I ahall try to -rite ot nn- 
ot. -ir tlmo, but with nil tin ntroln of u busy aoaolon I find j hove 
Biire tino botre n vvhilos hers thon at lodlana. 

You -rill parr,it me to sny ry nay in the form o f notos nnd 


^■ As to conciitl ono of a diala.'.I on to baotlam and bird's 3u,^i;er 

It is difficult to hove o hard end fast riila on this subjoct. TVie 

blbla conditions for Baptism is discluleshin . ' disciple of th.s Lopa 

leouG is one wh.o has taken up his cross to follow Him. This includos 

Tiith nnd a desiro for knorlodf^o. He lica enterad a school from ■'■hlch 

10 ill not t;raCluate this side tho poorly gotoa. To fclloiv tlLut tV.ero 

rill be rt once a variety of opinion}/ as to '-■•ho has thus bocom> a dis- 

rlple rnd a vnot difforonce in the ooitprny of the disci, los themselves. 

t is often tjuito irprerticable to civ^ anything lliie "thorough in- 

ttiictlons " before baptism. This is ispocirlly true of the serf 


s in distant vlllagoa and the 'voraon. To beer then: .hlsoion Cora- 

Bund ns inquirers and support thorn T;hile there has bjon definitely 
fovon to be a mistake. To undortak.e the work in the villflGOs is 
W’edlngly difficult (c) for rant of sufficl-ont 'vorkors and tl.e moans 

to oupiiort tbom ( 2 ) for tlio roceon that the circumstanceo arc unrav- 
orablo for careful instructions (3) for tho further reason that th.e 
mental capacity of most of the people is such as to renuire a very 
Ions period of time for such tffnchlng . 

I Viove definitely cone to tho conclusion that tho fundacantel points 
necessary to justify baptism are (a) a conviction of sin. (b) a conf.'s- 
j slon of Vielplessness to socuro salvation by pernonal effort (c) re- 
Ipontonce and a faith in Josue Christ ns the Saviour of the T/orld in- 
Icluding the idea of )ii3 divinity and Atonement for sin by His death 
fon the cioss. Ti-.osa points can be apprehended by very ignorant 
people and vhon acco^.tod they may bo admitted to the Lord's Supper 
^jas an ordinance commomoroting 'Us death. In this 1 think I am in 
agreement -Ith your lottor on page 1, 

2 ^nr,rr.n^|l gaf-.i on . 

It toes viUiout saying that organisation of C(ju*cVioo, Sess¬ 
ions and Presbyteries is by no means of easy attainment. For mlno own 
part I boliovo th.ftt tho I'reabytorien orcSor to be Uio Biblical order 
as sot forth in the organization of the early churches as described in 
ithi Book of Acts t>nU tV.e rrltings of the Apostles. Want of suitable 
BU'terinl for Uders and Deocons makes tliO .-.ork hard but I tliink tho 
initial steps s’nould lead up to the organization of Churches and Fros- 
I)i'terles and Synods. 

T!i 3 inauguration of "leaders " in tV.o Ulssion field vlll 
lead to trouble by and by unless the leaders be under authority. Its 
lo Sicr.l trend is towedr*0' opiscopy .'f the Doecon rnther t};Kn tho 1‘roG- 

-- 3 — 


Jcliiu, rii© iftTi^ 4w 

.ne oessxon is in ,„tire accord »ith ideas prey- 

Client in tl\B East, Uvory i-»«o ?< -try 

y Village Ima its ’Kanchoyal" in India and 

aiudlar Con.:.itteo3 of rr^a,;B,:ent arran^errx^nt are found in other Coun¬ 
tries. A session of .Xdera in a Ci.iotian Conx.unity is an exact paral- 

..e establish ^hat «e call "linperfcctly or^ani.ed churches- in the 
rubjab. They are often congregations with a single elder or leader 
but every effort is to add to the office list at least a full band 
of elders and as soon as possible bring the Church into complete organ- 
isation. This arrangement brin,;s the Church under irosbyterir.l con¬ 
trol and leans to Uiat fostering care necessary to its most rapid 

3. ThgL»gl«.t ion of mission and ^resby tery. 

1 am sorry to disagree Intoto with the principles set forth in 
this dcction of your letter, excopting that every eiTort should be 
made to secure self-support. But you say-missionaries should not be¬ 
come members of Iresbytories- etc. in my humble opinion ti.e surest 
way to influence the Churches in the right direction is to show them 
by personal .xai:ple what resbyterians believe and do. U am of course 
asBUTiln^ that as : resbyterians we believe in the resbyterian cystem 
oi Covt.j guch being the case J submit that we shuUld organize >res- 
bytories at tiie earliest moirient and conduct all our "vangelistic and 
Chuj-ch work tiirough the , resbytery. Institutions may be conducted by 
loreigners independent of i-resbyteries,aot they are at home. But the 
Church work including the extensive work of Bvangelizetion ouglit to be 
carried on by theiTesbyteries. The only way to educate and train the 
pastors and Bvangelists along rresbyterian linos is to work with then 
side by side and so exalt in their minds the chfiractor of the spiritu¬ 
al Work of the Chuj'Ch, bo far as India is concerned tiio missioniu^ies 

5 ' 

nve oeon and for the most part still ore procticnlly :3islioi/S of the 
tpiacopal type. They ore ; ords over God's herltote. in this iresby- 
tery a jp-eat ohont,e iias been Tiroucht for the bettor aiatincuisJilnc 
as from many who still hold to the old paths. 

Xhe Mission reeime erow out of the orifjinal effort to work with 
the uovenajitera requiring a second organization \The ^hssion) to pro¬ 
vide coprron standing ground, ether ; issions fell in line and 1 think 
the effect was very unfortunate, it accounts for moslfi^of the friction 
between missions and their native assistants. The latter are debarred 
from the placo whicli presbytery promises then. vhe exijorience of the 
U. i , and I !>ay sajf the ; . c, 'Missions bear me out in my judgment. 

Kusn’oer 3 on page 3 goes without saying,but the 'Spiritual agent ’ 
can influence ren more pov.erfully if iie recognize his native resbyter 
as a brother and not ns a servant. 

r.'umber 4 on page 3 is not clear to mind. "Comceptions of spir¬ 
itual and ijersonal sorvioe and res.ionsibillty" must have relation to 
autiiority. }f that authority be dhrist it is vested in Jiis Ohurch aid 
tiler efoi.’e in the iresbytery. i do not .see how ve ns iresby ter inns are 
going to set away from such autiiority and r.cceisiastlcal t-rganization" 
i think tiiC experience of Missions in India proves tiiat tlie dual 
arrangement of .’’issions and aatk « Sativo Ohurclies has created much 
trouble and tended to estrange from tiie missions the better classes 
generally. Kiiiscopacy pure and simple is bettor tlian this. liie people 
con understand a monarciiy and bo'w to its autiiority but not a duality 
of . i.-jsion and iresbytery in which the latter is exiiected to abide by 
tlie advice and direction of tiie f rmer on the penalty of the forfei¬ 
ture of missionary favor. 


.ith ..ction i e. in cnti.. a, .any lines of h..en- 

- an effort are ope, ana .uch reai Christian *or. can he Oone.but itself to such philanthropic effort as nay 

.e uirectly helpful to the .van.elistio .or.. .. savin, of f.,ine 

stricke, people and especianv tho l 

lecially the ,.rphans xs real evan.el istic .or. 

Glon^ th 0 lin 6 or oui* Tord*‘n « 

our „ord a miracles of healin. and fieedin. the hun- 

^ry ,y 

.» s... of r„,i„ 

such laboi'a. 

5. iVfwk^listic^aentres^ page 4. 

3«ch strong contres og kvangolistic Influence have ^.xrlptural 
precouont as .ell as historical cor.rirmation. yrom these ti. .or. 
n=ay be oxrxounded through native agencies. The .or. in the moral re¬ 
gions must be aocoraplished largely by native .orders. 

0 C. x he .uo sUon qfjjgnomlnational distinctions. 

Vhepparagraph on this subject on page 4 is theoretically correct, 
but we shnll have to wait for the millenium before it can be mde 
practical. .,> all no doubt try to build upon "Scriptural lines and 
according to Scripture principles", kut just hene is the i-eason wiiy 
bWe"denominational distinction of liristendom" find a place in every 
mission field. ach denomination builds according to its understand¬ 
ing of u.e vcriiitures. 

ihe koard cannot secure the principles of Joir.ity by abandoning anj- 
grounu occupied. ;■ f all societies were as generous as yresbytcrinns 

it might be practical to divide territory but the Ohurch of gnglnnd 
i issions.the I-. kpiacopal, the Saptists,tJie Christian,the .lalvation- 
iat.kK all insist on follov/ing their people and refuse to j»ep within 
any bounds. The practical way to reet this is to meet it Ui»on the 

around. „ 

cro.«,™„u Of .„o obov. 

f .».»»X, «^., to points 1. f. 3, 3, „3 3 , 

to soo». 30=111- nn.l nnlua .front .„.„3 p. 

This is an i.^.:.ense question, the value of ducation as an Kvan- 
tellatic agency is undoubtedly vony ,-roat and tUein influence on tbe 
intellectual life of the people is also ^raat. yhe .lK>ie sentient 
of a Ii’ation has been chanecd in a generation. The Avenues of influ¬ 
ence by the press and by a literatu..e have been opened up. The evil 
birds of iinorance tmd superstition are banished,etc. 

^Jiu-istians Should be educated in order to fill the schools of the 
land full of Ihristian teachers. ::o as :K,s8lble Cio^lstian parents 
8iiou.ld bear the expense but ire should educate rather than have the 
Children ^rov up dn icnorance ami vice ( for the two are closely alli¬ 
ed in this land - the necessities of life oblicins the poor to subject 
themselves to temptations.whlch few are able to bearj. Thousands of 
orphan children are tiu-own upon our hands in the la-ovidence of cod. 

Ke does not refuse to take them, shall we let them ^ow up in ii.noranc. 
3hall we not rather receive them as a eift of God and iraiD them for 
his service. Usually they have no toown relatives. They form the best 
material for our village work. There ra-e no ties of relationship with 
the heathen to influence their lives. They are free to so anywhere, 
experience points to them ns araons the best workers the Jhiiroh has yet 
produced. ,.f InHuential men broucht up in our own triJian jciiools, 
we iiave had the Kev. ucott and flwlgt £lven to the u. I. i.i.'islons and 
honorably mentioned in Cordon's book Cur India Missions :the Kevs. 

3. W. J. Loyiei, 0. I . dhessters, J. 3. Pales, I. A. Tlddle, i r. C. 

11/ otuart, hu£h c. illan, iaruel -ylie, j. : cjornel, ev. Joel jan- 

— 7 — 

vl.r (0,v„ .o 

our entire .hurches. .,s for- the Girls- .:r;,hnnae9S they have sui^iied 

the n;others and wives of the r’hll».,.^, e 

for nearly two eenerations 'r-he 

late :rs. Caloicoth was trained in the hodiana cr,hanace. Her chUdren 
ana her ,rown children are anon, the .oat influential .en and wo.en in 
the .unjab. -.ev. Henry Goloicnath.our .iaaionary. oharlos the Barris- 
ter, .xlU^i n pillar in the Jullundur Jhurch, l-r. Jhnttorjoe of Hoshy 
ar..ore, .y®. . itter of Jullundur (inai.ectajt of ciria' johool) Kanwwoni 
an Singh ( oir ..aioon aeing the Viceroy's louncil Oalcuttaj 
Kar grandson .rof. ..-red Shatter joe. Punjab University, :r.^i 
extra ..sslst. Jon, issionor, : rs. Br. Datta.wifo of the Oivil surgeon 
.oshyarporo . , record of a single family - a 

re.:,arxable family . grant - but it Illustrates your statement (A) 
page^C.concemingthe ^ of .Isaion schools. Cuf o^m educational 
work in India was undertaken under Divine guidance. At first thoro 
was hardly any other sphere open, fhe best friends of the mission¬ 
aries discouraged open Svangelistic work. They favored education and 
aided liberally. The result is that v,e J.ave been recognised as pio- 
neors in every form of educational work, establishing the first ,.nglo 
Vernacular School, the first College,the first trpiumages and Girls' 
Johools. Gur pupils are among the leaders of reform e^veaents every¬ 
where. ,e have revolutionized public senti!.eny: wo have introduced 
new ideas and concepts in the thought of millions. ..ur foundations 

wore deeply laidnna there is good hope the superstructure will be 

enduidr^ . 

bn the (iuostion of teachers, it goes without saying that if i>OK- 
aible they should be trul;^ Christian, .-in inconsistent Christian,how¬ 
ever, may be worse tlmn a Hindu or .osier., in the firatu instance 

— 8 — 

Kon-:toi 3 tian teachers are a necessity because a^ristian teachers are 
unavoiuable. to refuse to ocen a school until Christian teachers can 
be found would be to forefit a ^rreat opportunity to influence the 
.inds Of youth throu^J. the w.odium of correct science, scripture or^ 
relirious precepts imparted throueh the text books.the thrir.tian books 
and the Bible which core in natiwally throu^^i the 3ohool..not to speak 
of tlie daily opportunity of the missionary to instruct th.o minds of 
children and young .esplo who are pupils and their perents and friend? 
who are thus brouglu in touch with t!ie missionary. 3 .Jo not believe 
that any single influence or agency lias done so much to regenerate the 
niassoB in india and to make strong the foundatio, s of the Ihurch as 
Ghrif.tlan education, the sane is no doubt true of otliers lands. 

..gain X would say that no siiiicre outside tiie direct Evangelistic work 
alfords so prordsing a field for exorcising a strong j^ersona^ influ¬ 
ence by the native ihurch as that of the schools it is a most im¬ 
portant thing In the interest of the Jhureh that her sons should be 
tho educators of the people. 

! uch more niigiit be said on the money subjects iwesonted in your 
letter. Jf what 3 have said proves of any use to you, 3 shall be glad. 

Yours very sincerely. 

. '.Therry. 

Cable Address 
"Inculcate,'* New York, 

A. B. C. Cooc, 4TM Edition. 

OFFICE OF Secretary. 

The Board of foreign Missions 


Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 
166 Fifth Avenue. 


New York ,.. 

1 frcl. lltli. It'll. 


llseft-srp Chat.torjee, 

.-ourn'ji I eritcr-1 Coll«i,«, 

^ )‘h IXeit* l; hIII, onnn. 

I Iftf. mod fr'». 1 r. .'(tlo mid rr.C Ixon tl.rt 
your miier hp.d teit. .^-ou n r.'i?y of t.ii" Oftior. of i.ho -.odlonn i 1. b Ion 

renuaKtir.^ your r«turn to Cndio. jo« nnturnlly ■►111 l,c daBlrouB 

to 'r.r.ow tho r ction of t K* r.ourd In snr-vior to the r*ouo«t of tUo 
nl.slon, v= • 'irnt y >u to ;.now just i.o-- tho iit* rd v low* tho miittor, 

*nd iKWi oordXnl Its nrr t r-i-rd you, mu' how nuch it lioprs 

for you. 

I do. not think f.hnt X cor. do bet'or thsn quota ©varytlilr.g 
thr t ig Raid ir. thr lottor to '.hr :.l. alon, whlcli hns Jur.t h««n puilled, 
on thr suhjrct. -het wis gnid then* w«p n b followsi 

.'.t.eclBl sttor.tion Wig cf l l«d to thr !'l nlor.'s inporl^nt proriospl 
with referenoo to ; I i i ora Chnttrrjfo, ».r.d I quota th* fonor Ir.g 
oction from tho inuten of 'hr iionrd: 

' tn snsvierto tht r'e- uett of thr hodvgp.s , i. fl on fir tho 
e.p•■oli'.tirant cf Irs fora Chatterjaa "with the full atatun and 
•,rivilr;>PB ■. f Ri. -■ Borief >. n>l. lidnary, th« only limitntlona 
bclj.t, ir. rg;,ard to her rnlrry n' 1 ownr er, rrd furlough," the 
ifBlor. gU{i;,r it Ij.f, as to these thst, a# India i. her lioee, 
this will be 1) her case a hoa.c aervlea, rod Ihft. those be 
placed 01. a». Indian Bralc, a salary of 1 'Kupreg a riontl , 
and her 5 of ve of furl;iU 4 .h he in India,* It irrc voted 

that till hoard could nut dejart fr ir. tho j ollcy «).lch it tea 
hitherto purfcunci, ii.d In which all thr .■'r. rlcan ! i , lor.ary 
•'..c if ties l■{.re* rl h It. It is ..f I hr oi.lnion that t •ich a 
courua as li .ropoRfd it. unjust to the Individual concerned, 
as egtabilahii>c an unraaJ. gtetug and a aapari't loj. frow the 
niitivo Church. i nd furth r, believing tlmt thr ratabllaV- of a strong, ii.c’.r; er. .«».t Church 'a a chief < nd of i Ir- 

ChkllerJ**, 2 


• tona, tK» Board crnnot ta*l th t. it is just to t.h« natirs 
Church to take frofc it the vory ;.*o-<la who should bo its 
chief Icedora end Bujij-ort, and attach t.h«» to a for sign 
orgrr isatior*^ which» la its ^rlnciploa sad purj^oss is but 
tomporary. Tho Board feels that it would bo n)*.ci» lly un- 
furtuoato to do this at f he proBeat tin-o when the Indian 
Church coiitoD.plats a ftirthar advance in indepenil once and 
antonoRy, The Board vould desire to hevo it wado clear 
tlirt ‘.his action involves no depreciation of : !< a Chattsrjsa, 
but such a • ■reeli tier, of her iti*» and ihEirr for her 

aueeoss, asd to nake it unwilling to take a atop which it 
believes "rouXd bo dr tr Ir.e ntal to her largest usefulness, 
as eell as to the heel, interests uf the Indian Church. It 
would cordially ap; rove of Hi. Insertion In the ayjrorria- 
tions of th* ewount suggested by th* ;.i>i«lor. for Lit s 
CViatter jeo* a sslary, r.nd rcjoicos at the ;rc>a;.cct of her 
return to the work in India.'’ 

In order that the Board night have full inforisrtlon at hand on this 
liiportaiit question, I eorres; on'ied with the l.athodlst Board, the 
Anerican Board, tJi* ! ut.cJ. Board, the Baptist Union and ths 
United rreebjrt er ian Board, asking ther. as to their ractiee and 
principles. '-.hat they wrote in reply fully supi'orted what ia said 
above, and we have ■■ upposed that tho in the hi. sion's ac¬ 
tion to a^sao other Boards whldi have pursued a different course, 

RUSt be to eone of the Brit Isl. : ociaties. Sowethlng was said in 
a letter fr'se the I i.-.Blon «,■>«* ti lee ago, to the effect that ths 
; «thadlst8 had a p; ointed : Isa . ingh a full aif-alonary, and I wrote to 
Bl.-l.o.o Thoburn on the wstter. Bishop Thoburn replird that this was 
a mistake, adding, "It was hiss ilngh’s deliberate conviction that it 
ould better for th* women of India to maintain a separate position, 
r.nii I think in this she was very wise." 

I shouldllk* to nake clear wl.rt seems to be the vUw of the 
Board, and what from its records has *vi ently always been its view, 
nrwely, th«t thr vision »honld be kept distinct "rom the native 
Churol., and th» t nothing rhould he done to depreciate the importance 
or dignity of 1 he native Church { tK«t jut.t a a speedily ap, the Church 
could be brought to independence and self—f upport, the 
agencies r hould withdraw. The iPiard’s refusal to break down this dis¬ 
tinction by appointment of natives of diffe-e.-.t countries as mewhers 
3 f »ho V.irsions, it not due to any low estlrate of the el.sraeter and 
capacities ..f the native ,* oplas. To think to would be a great mis¬ 
take. Ths Board's feeling is tht t to do wit t i» . Pupoaed by the 
All B ion Ih to make the Lif.slor. over-shadow the native Churph, and to 
depreciate th.- importance of the latter and Its service by se-uirptlng 
from it P.nd attaching to the ion, those who Hiould be Its ehief 

glory and tu.oport of the Church. The principle .-ay be clearer in 
the e. »e .f an ..rrlp.incd mar. than in the ease of a woman, ^ 

the t. or rlnciplc In the viww of the Board. The Board la 
for the autonomy and Inlsgrity and dignity of the native Church, and 

lie* 3 

brli*va* tKitt thv latter ^hou\(l:•»t be inTnde<). 

Oftme K«y aey that thl* i» theoretical. That In rn<tl«, th* nay 
to eecuro the end nhich the Board has Ir. Tie*, and "!• ich l« juat as 
aa^erly dralred by th* t'laalor.a, xe to do nn’Claely what < ha ’,t<salor. 
proj-oanr.. V r, /rt.hxir 'wing and I have often talked that orer, and 
I ea n «** the fore* of the view which lione »ay take. Bat the Board 
la convinced fre-r t' » experlenen In Brnall, ereln, Japan and elae- 
whar#! that < ha ^rinolpl* upon which it is netln^, 1; the rlf^ht prln- 
el^l*> ►’'d nlll be onnd In the end tu guard beat the rl^l ts of th* 
native Charoh, and to save frew confusion the dutlea »n<J funet Iona 
of the Ul. sloB. 

; s you know, this ir not firr-t tl p-e that thle -.Astlon haa 
been before the Board. It ;.reHented its-.lf In very nuch the asne 
way as Ir. Kl»* Chatterjee*8 enae, wh-n the Rev. Boon Soon Itt, of 
Masi, who had been’hrought to liils rountry when a little child by 
Br. and '.re, Koaae, and educi ted et .'uburn i’eolnary, returned to 
Clan. It has been before the hoard tine r j.d ajjaln In eonoect lor. 

« itl. able fieu fran eraln who have bean eduerted In thla country. 

"he j;en(rpl prlncli-le which lie* back of the Board'a c>.ur*e haa been 
(jlatinctly cfflmed by tho Oenoral . aaer-blywhich declared In 1898, 
on the rocornend^ t lor. of t5>* dtand Irij; cow.itte* on 7ore Ign !'.lealon*, 
"hieh included cnnng It* nenbers, ir. :uli'.g,ant5 "r. I oyee df th* 

Cat. t 'jn ! ■ 1» a lor.; - 

*Xhat In the judgment of the . aacwbly, the beat result* 
of ni'isior. work in Branll and othar foreign fie’da will be 
attained only when rigia lines ..f dlatlnctlon nr* observed 
between th* function* of the Screig* mixaivna native church** 
and ‘he function* of the foreign kIr tlon* j the n la a ion* eon- 
tribritlr-c to the establishment of the native church** rr.d 
looking forward to ;«palng or. the regions beyond when 
their work l» done, nndth* native churches growing up with 
an Independent identity from the beginning, admlnlatorIng their 
owj. c or.trlbiitlor.* and resourcee lU'.entar.gled with any reepone- 
Ibillty for 1 he j dcilnlstratior. of the nl:.*ions or of 'he fund* 
c mnitted to the ■nipsirtn#, * 

1 wrote all thi* to your father, and ir. addition «aidi 

* r do not know that there Ip anything noi’* that I err add. l^at 

is said above represents ur sineere feelings. Reluctance ^ 

th* Virion suggests is prompted not by a -;==;7/'''-;’-’X'’^r» 

rutive Chureh or thoa* «ho are divinely quallfved to b* ita 

and guides, but by pmeirely the oppos ite view. 

la a dlttlnetly temporary body, w!..rae oualne** is to 

then fade away. the native Church Vs ;ar.»ner.1, and abiding. 

oust Increase and thoV-laaton must deercas*. i-t seen* to ' 

“othlr-g should he done to break do»r. 

.hold not invade the , rovinc. of the hntlv* 

Church should find it. glory in a free and 

It seems to us thrrt. r ora can be a great , ow.r Jer 

owr. pe ople. . nd. a. Bishop Ihoburr. aay. Kie. f Ingh believed 

Kiss ChAttarJaa, 4. 

*o:.t «nd h*v« hAd better edT«r.tBie* of treinlntf nfcould ,.ot 

,ep>r..t. th.»e,lv. from u.*«. forfeit!,.a in th!» wny tJ.. po.elblU- 
tles of lergeet lendorohip." r n it 

I do not know thet there le nnythln^ wove tbftt enn be *eld. 

I feel nlmort eur. thet the y of ,.he Board nuat commend Ite.lf to 
you when you think the setter over. ..e want you to be of the great 

•St fo^etble service in Chrlafe church in India, and believe thet you 
e»r. be of greatest service by not detaching yourself fro*, your pwn 

peo^.le, but by using tlw. .jualUleB which God has given you and the 

load Ing 

training which you have received,in natbiag the kobscr of the Indian 
Church, as it aecos to ut you could not lead thee if you vent to then 
as a and not as on* of thenselves. 

«• shall hope to See you a ate t l«a this r prU»g. 1 judge 
from a conversation with I r. Ctis, thnt you will be ready to go out 
to India in August. loo will let nr know, will you not, if there la 
any way in which we can be of service to you neax.ahllet 
elth kind regards. 

Very sincerely yours 

Cable Address 
" Inculcate," New York. 

A. B. C. Code, 4tm Eoitiqn, 

OFFICE OF Secretary. 

the Board of foreign Missions 

or THE 

Presbyterian Chubch in the U. S. A. 
166 Fifth Avenue. 


Ihe Kev. U. C. G. Jones, 

I.odiRna, h’unjftb, India, 
l.y bear i'.r. Jones 

New York, 

'■'rsFc'K'-'Trrt.'br . 

Your ^ood loiter of iebruary 5th was received 
yesterday, together VTith your note making certain corroctione in the 
medical statistics. I vjill have tlio corrections entered on the sheet 
as you sent then. I want to tlinr.k yon again for your splendid ser¬ 
vices in the natter. I wish that in every l.i;-.sion there was some 
man wl.o could do this ns you ha’e done it. And who yet could speak 
of tile labor of it as little as you do. I suppose there are in some 
I^issions, men who could do it by spending all their time at it( but 
tliere seen to be few who dould do a , iece of work of this sort while 
at the same t no they cfrry on such a faithful and aggressive evan¬ 
gelistic v/ork as you do. 

I always look with pleasure for a letter from you, because 
of its hopeful tone and tl.r. assurance I have of I ir.fS ng in it sor.e 
note of encouragement tnd progress. 

You need not have spoken regretfully of the late date at 
•■hid. the reports wore received. They have cone in arapl^ tia.e. 

With reference to the tv;o joints you make regarding tliese statistics, 

I would sr.y just a word. /s to native contributions, I think t!.c 
practice of your iiirsion is more generous than in most nissions. I 

do not think that as a rule the missionaries make it a practice, as 

they seem to do in the Lodiann I.ission, of r-syine *o much directly 
toward the local churches. I can see how difficult it would bo, 
however, for you to separate wliat the miss ionariea give from what the 
natives give. At the same time, I cannot help but think that 
is a little doubt of the advisability of an arrangement that secures 
from the Board througli t)ie Tresbyterial grant-in-aid scheme, two or 
three Rupees for each Rupee given by the native churches to the Pres¬ 
byter lal fund, and also for each Rupee given by the missionary through 
the native cliurchos. But I am trying to study out that Preabyterial 
grant-in-f,id scheme more crrefully in all its bearings, in the light 
of what our .’iissions are trying to do or doing, and shall defer writ¬ 
ing further until my own ideas are a little clearer. 

On the other question, of v/hat constitutes a churcii member 
and of tlie separation between tiie rite of baptisoi and the ordinance 
of tho lord's Supper, I would say that I expressed some views in tlie 
Report on China presented to the Board after returning from a visit 
to the Missions in Asia some years ago. I am sending you a copy of 
it, with the passage in question marked. I do rot know that, if I 
were rewriting that passage, I would say the tiling quite so strongly. 

I agree v;it!i you that it is desirable to have something that will 
mark a break between tlie old life and the new; sop et hing that will 
formally commit the native inquirer or adherent or convert to a Christ¬ 
ian Church. If baptism ia tho only thing that will do this, I 
should be willing to have it used for the pun>ose, and defer the Lord's 
Supper until a later time. IVo you not have, however, in the cutting 
Off of the kes or b odi . a ceremony that appeals strongly enough to 


the imBcinatior, rnd l.hat sorves an a register of separst/i on from 

the old to the new? Indeed, your report this year indicstos that in 

the case of certain rundit the cutting off of his h odi was a greater 

thing than haptiam, Why can you not make use of some euch ceremony 


as this instead of using haptism as the Ekange or symbol of the change? 
Baptism without the amputation of the ! ea evidently is not of suffi¬ 
ciently strong register of the changed relationship. Would not the 

amputation of the hes v;ithout baptism be sufficiently strong, and then 
bapf sn collie c.n later, and if desired, the Lord's r upper s little later 
I try to hold a sort of mid-view myself. ' 1 do not believe 
in an ultra rigid plan of- some, or in a loose, indiscriminate ; Ian of 
others. It is true, as you say, that we can avoid raising tares by 
raising nothing. As I have nut it in some letters, it is a great 
deal better to have a shop which is turning out a produce even though 
full of refuse and debris in consequence, than a shop that keeps it¬ 
self perfectly clean by turning out nothing. I think we would prob¬ 
ably find ourselves holding very much tho same position if we should 
sit dovvn find discuss the question together. 

I have wanted to write to you as Chairnan of the Cortmittce 
hich presented the report ofi the appointment of l.iss Dora chatterjee. 
I.y letter to the Idiision probably speaks of the matter with sufficient 
fullness, and represents 1 think the general view here, but you would 
be interested I am sure, in the letters which have come to us firom 
the other Boards in answer to our general inquiry ns to what their 
practice had been. sndwlu.t view they took of the ^general question 
■ hich was raised by such a ..ronosal as cam. from the l.iss ion 


Ur. Jones, 4. 

letters n.ay ha ve been sent t o us in n more or less c 
althoueh not so specified, and I quote them just for 
Ur, Griswold's, as they may be of s >me hely to you. 
wrote as follows: 


onfidential way, 
your eye and 
Blfhop Thoburn 

) "In re-Cily to your frvor of the 13th inst., I write to say 

1 that l.isa Gingh was riot male a full jolf^slonary during her visit, hut 
jv.'oulu have been so prorrioted liad she not hr d the good sense to decline 
{the T-roposal when made to her, ''ome years ago llius Howe, a gifted 
J young Turaslan lady, wee made a full Missionary, and acceo*ed the 
promotion very reluctantly. She foresaw v.hat Ulss r ingh also did, 
thlit a certain mcasui’fe of jealousy would be stirred up in the mihds 
of the young ladies whi did not receive a similar promotion^ and also 
; that a false ideal might thus be created in loayiy -ninds, j.t the srico 
time I think some good lias been done by special promotion in eases T^uraaian young ladied have displayed exceptional ability and 
merit; for inatance, in I.adras v;e liavc alls Stephens, v-ho has dis¬ 
played great administrative ebllity and attained unusual success, 

) There were local reasona which seened to ne t: mere than justify her 
promotion. As ah offset to this case, however, mother young lady 
of the samo class, living in f outh India, came to tliij^ c. untry about 
two years ago, and succeeded in getting an appointment as a full loin- 
tionary from our somewhat impressible ladies. I fear the result in 
tills c/SG will be to create a desire in the ninds of manjr in Tndia to ’ 
t go to the United Gtates by hook or crook in order to secure this kind 
of recognition. It was hiss :irigl.*s deliberate conviction that it 
would be better for the women of tnclia to maintain a separate position, 
and I think in this she was very wise. I have had nuch difficulty 
in recent years with this whole question, r.s it affects not only the 
natives of India, but Europeans who join us ’n India, including -urr— 
uians. It is a source of cjidless trouble. The ‘mpression prevails 
widely that the way to grt reco nition as a full mi -jb ionary us to 
coiuc to the United ftates, and secur'S a measuje of ^ o^iularity here, 
end then get an appointment as a -li:-s iona ry to India from .‘moriea, 

A good many yorre ago ve decided, tiiat in exceptional cases, where a 
man ^jroved his ability in the field, he nlgliL be recognized first, by 
tho I iuance Committee of ]»is conference; second, b the conference it¬ 
self; and Lhird, by the Central Conference, wliich in your Church wouid 
E be represented by a Goneral i ynod. lie then r.igjit be recognized by 
I the Board in h'ev/ lork as a full nV s ionary. Unfortunstely, the Board 
B has not adhered to '.liis rule, f nd only last year a young Englishman, 
t' who hfd joLjied ua in L.alayaia, whs made a full missionary without 
B any recognition by us whatever. Your miss ionaries vill have less 
P truuble of tills kind, I sui-.-ose, cliLefly because tliey do not admit many 
L sucIl workers in India. On the vt olo question, I on only say that, 

B while it Is vary desirable to deal impartially with all human beings, 
B yot, in view uf the fact th, t we wish to build up an Indigenous cliurch 

Ur. Jones, §. 

64 - 

with indigenous agencies in every foreign field, it will be better 
from the beginning to draw a line between the foreign miasionary and 
the indigenous worker, and to compensate for what might seem a disad¬ 
vantage of the letter, I would favor the bestowing of a large measure 
of responsibility in all matters pertaining to local management upon 
the me: and vfomen who are picked up in the mission field." 

Cr. Barton, Secretary of the American Board, for many years a mission¬ 
ary in Turkey, wrote as follows: 

“The American Board has never appointed as mir si onary any 
native of India trained in this country or elsewhere. The nc areat , 

I believe, thr t the Board lias ever come t^^ma king sucli appointment is 
that of l.r. r.eesina of Japeb, and lie was' an associate member of the 
mission, a.lthough his salary, I believe, was never paid by the Board. 

I think our Board would be opposed to any such aopointPient for the 
following reasons: 

1. It would probably impair the infl:ience of the one so a ■> oint— 
ed upon his poople as the broacli between the mis s Iona rynso ampointed 
and his people would bo wider because of the ap;ointment. It would 

re ove him from 1 he class of native iinr' ers to the class of foreign 
missionaries who from the very natire of +he case, cannot get into the 
closest and most intimate relations with the natives. 

2. With many native workers it would have a tendency to create 
pride of position, making him feel thrt he was in a category by him¬ 
self as compared with the other native workers. It would require a 
very good man or woman to withstand Mie temptation to magnify th.e uosi— 
tion of .'.raericah missionary dealing directly with i he /neric.-n Borrd, 
rather than with the mission, and without any direct responsibility 

t- the n t ive teachers or orgnnitations. 

3. It hardly seems a fair treatment to give a native of the 
country, who has .erchance had special opportunities, such a marked 
distinction, while ma be others in the country w.ho have remain¬ 
ed and wlio may be equally valuable as workers and equally connecreted 
end intelligent w)io do n«»t receive such distinction, 

«. It seems to us that such a step would Lend to work against 
se If-support and self-control of the native organirations. If one 

missionary is so appointed, w)iy not many? and if sueli apoointment is 
begun, when is the cliange to begin to take place to native sup; ort of 
native workers, v(hen tlicse peonle shall scoarate themselves from the 
American board and become eel f-supporting througl. the native organ¬ 
izations? .juch a transition would be difficult to make, I fear, es- 
■ecially as we have rca.son to feel th.-t if natives were ampountefl at 
all, tl.e ;.ressui'e would je vry str ng to have ar, increasing number 

perhaps the reasons which I h ve given above cover the maan ones 
which are in my mind, although there are many others which mvght be 
brought forward, '. e have in India native workers of the highest 
csBte hho have been trained in this country, and who would greatly 
like appointment, but v/e have delined to so an-oint for i he reasons 

Ur. JoneBf 6 

alrencly pven. Tl.o rdt .b ionsri,es have put some of these Able native 
workers into jjositions of large responsibility and trust 
two - " ‘' - -- - • . 

o thea> in our l.srsthy Uission, are doing practically the work of 
a missionary having charge of a field. I cannot but feel t to 
roa^e either one of these men a missionary of the.Board vould bo to 
impair his usefulness in India. Tome of our lUssion. however, a^e 
in favor of liaving l,he names of theso non included in the Indian 
publics tiona as miss iom.Ties; but wc feel that even that would lead to 
a misunuerstarvding and require continual explnantion. I Imve always 
felt that sucli appointment would lead to much restlessness on the isrt 
of tho native workers who were not np^iointed, whic li might result 
in their naking effort to come to this country for farther study in 

order to secure appointment. I am thoroughly convinced from my ex¬ 
perience in Turkey, ti.rt if an frn.enisn should go back to Turkey ap¬ 

pointed as missionary, he could be of little use to tho work there, and 
I think the same is largely true 6f .lapan. r'erhsps this reason w juid 

not he so sl.rong in India as in tlic otlior mission fields. I feel 

that we must not lose s ight og tlir one ain: of our mi ssionwork, and 

tl,; t is, to I he i^oards a,t }iome less and 1 ess jiccessary as far 

as v;e can, to th' progress f,f t,he ’.vork ebeoad. In order’ to do this, 
we do not v/iih to increase the_ number of bonds which hind t.he Boards 
to 'ho work,but rather to decr-ease the nimber and lessen the hold 
just, so dr.r as we can, tru ting that the time will come in he provi¬ 
dence of C-od, when the Christiai. institutions In tiiose countries shall 
bo solf-supporting, self-governing and self-propsgnting." 

tr. Cobb, onco a ’‘li ssi onarj in j-ersia, now Bectetary of ) lie Tutch 

Ketorned Board, wrote as follows: 

"In rogfrd to the proposition to retur to India as an American 
missionary, a young vroman, a nativo -f Inriis , ”rho has received a 
medical education in this country, t'n.e question sncics to 'ne to he 
soraeWhat complicfted by the request of the hission tiisl. such an 
appointment be made. I am rather apt to feel that rur missionaries 
are hotter able to judge of tiie effect of particular action which t’.oy 
recommend than '.vc are. Tet 1 am inclined to think that, should you 
yield to tiieir request in this r.atter, theywould come in tisie, and 
perhapjE quite speedily, to reslize that they lia d made a mistake. I 
am not at ell convinced that it v^ould be 'vise to do so. iie have 
never appointed any native man or women to India, nor any such men 
to China, as regular m i s slona r ies on t'ne regular ninsionr-ry basis. 
lie did send out a number of years ago, l.i.'is Y. Kay Xing, I . B. , a 
native of China, and an adopted b lighter of '"r. l.cGartee, to .Amoy as 
a mi .E ionary of this Board, but tlie experiment didnoL work well, and 
I tl. ink we would nevrr try it again. The was received with groat cor¬ 
diality by the f.isEion, and every facility given her for I he prose¬ 
cution of her work. But both ai’.e and Br. 1 cCartee, almost from the 
time of her airival, ^for Tr. I.cCnrtee went witli her) began to fancy 
sliglits put upon h€)r by tlie metibors, of l.he r.insion on account of lier 
not being a.n f.»i rlcan. So far as I could ascertain, the cliarge was 

11*. Jones, 7 


entirely t^roundless, s.ecinl pr-ins hnv ir.£ been tnVen to givono oeen- 
gion for fcuch feelina. Tlic nii nntion wr. s an impossible one, end rlth- 
in about a year LU!-s King resigned, to the great relief of the VAis on 
and tjie Board. I have BOTetiries been tempted to thinh that the case 
might have issued differently if Pr. l.eCartee had not acoon!.anied 
lii JB King. But vrhether it v.-ould have been so or not it is, of course, 
impoj'Sible to say. In i.he of an ordained male tnissionery, T 
have felt that such an ap^^iointnent put an XKpaKsAh&RKxist inpassahle 
barrier betwaon and tlie nstive church, a thing that v.e hadnot 
right to do. hy own impression is tha' a native so appointed ia 
neither one thing nor the other. Ke is not in any sense an /morican 
mitsionr,ri, and he has been V7cBned, to a greater or less extent, from 
hi., ov n peo;>le, filiould lie go out on the regular mit sionrry bafeis, 
and of course become a member of the liisKion (a thinfe which our I’anual 
jmt.kfs liopoosible), he would bo likely to occupy a very difficult and 
trying .'Onition, f:nt'. one in whicl. ho v. oi.ld be likely yo be viewed ’.vit.h 
suspicionby the ;.ir. sion on one lia-nd, and his native brethren on the 
other. Ko would ' e likely to ho subjected to hery grert pressure from, 
the .lutside, against wiiioh it vould he very difficult foriiiim to stand. 

Tlio case if a medical mi s ionary mig)it pOasihly be somewhat, dif- 
ferotit, at least 1 suppose it -ligl.t he po.'sihle, without putting him 
ur her on f, regular missi onary basis, to give the appointee the voice 
of a mi 3 oi ona ry in the conduct of tho hospital or medical work in 
which he or she might be eng!god, without extending similar provi- 
leges to eve”y department of '.ho work of 'he I ission." 

r«r. lioonard, Gecrot.'-ry of the '. etliodist Board, wrote this 


If kissionary f'ocieties adopt the policy of placing artives unon 
tho same basis ns .tnericrn mi asionaries, it, v-lll be necessary for them 
to treat all alike or they will create distinctions that will be very 
trou.lesomc. Tt aeerts t.o mo that the safer policy is to draw the line 
between f.lie foreign missionary and the native minister, so that the 
latter may feel that there are no distinctions or classes among then. 
The self-respect and dignity of the native Church should, in ry judg¬ 
ment, always be ke. t promir.i-r.tly in vievr." 


Ir. &KKX, of tho Baptist Union, wrote: Pur'’ociety has never given 

natives rppoini.mont a sm i ■. s Iona r ies. ” Tv. Barr, Secretary of I he 

United j-resbytoria,n Board, after speaking of one or two exceptional 
ccses in their Miasions, added: 

"In several inri.ances '• e liave refused to appoint/^ natives edu- 
cited in this country to our mifsions, though pressed by many here to 
do so. have unifon'ly diacouragod th.e bringing of natives to 

this country to be educited, and our rule is not to appoint as mvinvon- 


l,.r. JonoB, 8. 
pries nny v;ln have i.hus cone.* 

I quotn those not bb enflorsing in every partioulnr nhat 
they sr.y, hut hecr.uso they represent in the rr. me genernl judgricnt 
tic- that oJcpresBed in 'ho net ion of our Board. 

As to the general principle, of course you doyhtleBS agree 
'with what T snidf but feel tl'.at !.iss Chtterjee is an cxce;tion. But 
^ v.hat would constitute her an exception? Educft ion? Iliore are scores 
of Men and women in our 1 ipsions, natives of foreign lands, as well 
cduci ted; somc of tlirn better. Ability? Txactiy tlie same thin^ 
could be said in the "latler of ability. In Japan '■■e iis ve a number of 
men of superb qualities and i.)iBE 0 Ut..h trainiȣ,. Ihe same thing is 
true, of ooric men in l.exico r nJ Era.ail v.ho are not on amiss ionary ha- 
sis, and could not ho . ut on it ’.vithout denoralia ing the work in tl-.eir 
fields utterly, andhror.king down the development of thcla.tive Church, 
Is it r.ot true that the course . nposed would establish a 
pure fiction. \ i ss Chtterjre is not an ica n m i us ions ry, and 

cannot he, ought not to want to he. God has made her ay! hindj. woman, 
and her splendid priviisge, it seems to me, si. ould be to do her 
a hindu woman , and labor among her own ..eonle, not separated from 
them, and charged with functions that she ought not to be hampered 
with, and that she cannot possibly touch wvthout los u>g m re 

gards, which for her areoore important. 

r have ventured to write at length on the subject, in order 

to assureyou andhr. Griswold and i.iss V.herry and ala the i.iesion, 
that the Board has n-ot lightly disregarded its careful and weighty 
Vith kind regards. 


45£) N. Market Rt., 

Wichita, Kansas. 

9eb. 13th,1901. 

Dear Ben: 

I have read Dr. LepEiW** pafiors with miioh Interest. It is 
a sad and shameful story. Sad, because the poor Hos, Christians are 
■orally so nealc, and shamoful, because the strong Christian churches 
have thus : orsistently put stumbling blocks in their way. "Moral 
education" by which I suppose is meant character or moral stamiHS is 
always a plant of slow growth and usually does not khep place with 
•religious intelligence". Tennyson wrote, "Knowledge comes, but wisdom 
linger! even in Europe. 

But it is sad and disheartening to see this nation or rather 
this old Christian Church so deplorably weak. No wonder that one ac¬ 
quainted with Syrians cailed,"The love of money the root of all evil." 

I wish however that those who have stood firm in the midst 
4f the unfaithful could be more fully recognized. If you could write 
a short chapter,on these, would it help to relieve the blackness of the 
picture? km I read it I wished that the Nestorlans themselves could 
see this picture of their nation as others see them. Would they wince 
at the biting satire or would they not recognize it? 

On page 27, the former paetor of Virgierabad is called Cu. Mlrr 
ga. His name was Ca. Syad and he was the older brother of Nweyu. 

He was a very good man and that village was as fully evangelized ae 

American villages are, when Ca. Pera came In and divided the church 
by giving the Communion indiscriminately. 

- 2 « 


You will notice a few pencillofi corrections which Eph has made. 
If undesirable they are easily erased. I don't quite understand Dr. 
t's. stand point. He admits that "religioaa education" which must 
involve some "educational training" has exoaodad the "moral education" 
and yet on page 36 he says, "How can there bo any apiritual interest 
when the people hove such a low standard of Intellectual training? 

Had not Dr. O'Shanna as much intellectual training as Ou 
Yaoob DilUfceoff? I am afraid if we knew the history of Hestor- 

ians i.^isslons we would ioarn that they rsver had a very high degree of 

The Chinese tablet shows that they tamporiaed and concealed 
the doctrines which they thought would dleplease the people. 

The Kestorians were always diplomatic ana alwaya"kept their heads" by 
skill rather than by fc rc’e, I wonder if this haa not cultivated to- 

The English Church is shown up in a light about as damaging 

as that thrown upon the Kestorians. 

Thank you for sending me this paper. I have been very great¬ 
ly interested in it. It certainly ought to show the people the evil 
of multiplying misslonsif. among a small people and it must arouse all 
who have anything to do in missions, to examine their methods in the iijd 

light of results in eharaoter. 

When I remember some of theNestorian pastors I have known 

as Ca. Lego of Gepg Tapa and Ca. Shimon of Degaia I can't quite accept 

Dr. Lepsi-tts' estimate of their work. They did as aubh for their 

people as any pastor here does. If they did not study as much they 

did as much visiting and "shepherding" of their flocks and their sermon. 

> were suited to their hearers. I think Ca. Gewergis of Oeog Tapa 

— a* 

altho in sorae reapacts, very faulty was a faithful pastor. 

But I will ivaary you with going over what you know. 

To have all oondomnod hurts me booauso they ara to mo slat ors 
and brothers with whom I have taken sweet couneil. 

I wrote you a few days ago, directing to Chicago. 

Vith love to Mary, 

Yours truly, 

Sarah J. Shedd. 

P. S. I send back the paper with this. 



C C I V. 

Hobert Gpeer, i.sq. 

Dear Jdr: —- 

Boa S8, .".ontrose, la July 14, 1903. 

, . , I yours of July 7th askins about tho Jyria 

-iyria . Ission was taken up by the rresbytorian Church 
in ipo the . Ission resolved to adopt the fresbyterian forn of govern 
-raent as soon as practicable—• Owing to a want of Native pastorates 
and the almost utter dependence of both pastors and churches on tho 
mission and considerable opposition on the part of so-^ native breth¬ 
ren, the matter of organising a j'resbytory was postponed. And as there 
were several troublesome men in tho Beirut church who wanted absolute 
blank Independency, when iresbytery was organi.sod in 1882-3 it was 
in the Jidon field 'nly--hTe Jidon missionaries with the pastors and 
helpers organised a iresbytery on a basis similar to the irotestant 
Armenian body in Northern Asis Binor^ that is, the annual appropriations 
of funds pjr fhar Nat. agency and common schools, (some '150C or a 2CC'0) 
wasplaced by the station in the liands of the iresbytery to bo auportion 
-ed among the preachers and teachers. Ihe missionaries (Ford and iddy) 
being corresponding members—but as they furnished the funds, they had 
a veto on the use of the funds, in case for instance, the Jyria nembors 
shoudldecide to give up one or the two outstations and use the money 
thus save for the raising of their own salaries! .'iut this did not oc¬ 
cur for it was found that the Cyi’icy-i;; each guarded jealously his own 
position and pay. It was agreed that as soon as any cliurches or all 
combined sliould contribute enough for half the salary of a preacher, 
he should bo ordained-—lhat Iresbytery now has three or four ordainod 
pastors, but not ono of them is fully supported by the people, and 
pretty much every preacher in tlio district is quite dependent bn the 
Jtation faV.3upport so that they are pretty likely to consider tho 
Views of tho missionaries before voting aye or nay. Ihe .ripoli 
Presbytery is on much the same basis. iho Beirut and I^obanon” .resby- 
tery has not yet adopted tho plan of ptitting a lump sum in aid into tho 
hands of iresbytery, but the missionaries in Beirut, ;uk, Abeih and 
lahloh, deal directly erith the pastors and preachers as individuals in 
their employ. 

Indeed tho present state of the tl\ree ircsbyteries is 
that of an ecclesiastic training school. Fho 3yrla members like the 
system, attend tV.e meetings wit'-i zeal and zest, and have learned to 
trabsact business promptly and take a pride in being able to report 
increased contributions. 

Xhe basal idea frc"' the first has been to have Presby¬ 
teries and eventually a Jynod purely Jyrian, with no connection with 
our General ^.ssembly and no right of appeal to it, or riglit of having 
mileage of Jyrian Commissioners to the Lnitod Jtates paid by the Gener¬ 
al Assembly's Fund. 

-At Cara toga in 1879, the assembly took the ground (as 
far 33 I can recall it without the documents) that our -resbyterian 
missionaries abroad may join mixed Presbyteries in foreign lands, and 
still retain their connection with their homo Presbyteries. ..o look 
on the Jyria iresbylcrios as such mixed iresbyteries, and if the 
Cyrians appirove, we shall continue to sit with them, and retain our 
connection here. 'i4iat very point is now being discussed by the three 

7 / 

- 2 - 

Presbyteries. A form of governj^ment has been prepared in Arabic, in 
proof, tentatively, taken from the Presbyterian form of government, and 
either tViis 3eptember-or next year they will decide whether to give the 
missionaries a vote. \'ie do not want a vote, but they want us to have 
it. I think as corresponding members we can do jpst as good, and thus 
throw the financial responsibility more and more upon them. Thus far 
we have taken our turns with them in the moderators office—-They pre¬ 
fer as do the Nestonian Irotestant Churches to regard the deacon and 
elder as having equal right to session and Presbytery, but general of 
our missionaries urge going back to the American Usage and excluding 
the deacon from Presbytery unless he be also an elder. TheConference 
of the three Presbyteries with regard to the form of government is 
the first step towards a Cynod of 3yria,and the Damascus iiission of 
the Irish Presbyterian Church may acme day unite v^ith the Lebanon Pres¬ 
bytery and come into the Synod. But as long as the churches do not 
fully support their own pastor, the Presbyteries can hardly be called 
independent bodies, ’.'e sit with them, counsel them, an^ work with 
them hoping to train them to become a self-supporting Syrian Presby¬ 
terian Church——To connect them with a Synod or Assembly in this 
country would only bring confusionto their minds, and open the door for 
restless minds to appeal over the heads of their own country men to a 
foreign body far away which could not fully understand the merits of 
the ease--—Be propose to make the Synod the body o^ final appeal 
as the country will not need a General Assembly.----—- 

' Copy. 



120 ;.iontaguo St., SrooJclyn, K. 
October 3cth, 19C3. 

H8V. Artnur J. Brown, D. ij., 

ISO i-'ifth Avenue, 

New '/ork Jity. 

Deer Dr. Brown; 

I ^eve almost repented of my rash promise to tut in 
writinfc my views of tm r«R* relative value of lingl ish oiid the native 
lanfcuat,® mediums of education in our Jiiaaion college, it depends » 
so largely Upon the object in view and the peculiar environment. If it 
bo an institution like some in India,where many of tns students are 
confessedly in training for Civil dgrvice.and where the Government un¬ 
dertakes to supervise and set the standard, in return for subsidies 
or protection, tnere is much lass to be said against 'English ns a medi¬ 
um, then wiic re tae re is no such quasi dependency. The arguments in 
lavor of iinglish nave been rather of expediency, convenience and econo¬ 
my,- rendering toe services of .imorioan and hnglish instructors immed¬ 
iately available and enabling the college to utilize the text-boois 
already in print and avoid tne expensive and difficult work of creat- 
ii^ a set of text-booics ,odapated to the people and the country,- than 
01 sound pedagogics, it is also counseled by tnose who wish to make 
bnglisii a wrold- language . bn tne other hand: 

/> college graduate ought to be able to express himself clear¬ 
ly, comple tely and strongly on any subject witn v.nion he is acquainted. 
This iias led, in ,,iiiB country, to raising the standard of 'inglish for 
college entrance and in tho college course. - He should be Sirilled in 
the exact etymological value of woiiis as well as their popular use. 

It is almost impossible for a foreigner to acquire an exact knowledge 
of iinglish in the 5 or d years ne may spend in one of our colleges. 

He gets a fair colloquial knowledge, but is always at sea in the pre¬ 
cise value of tne terms which he cannot refer back to his own language. 
Being away from his own country during the xieriod when he would study 
his motner tongue, and never getting; In close touch with the litera¬ 
ture of tnis countryywnicn usually describes scenes and touches upon 
things that are not in his life or in the traditions of his country, 
ne is handicapped in uotii languages, one of our American students 
goes to Germany or i’rance for a graduate course in some special 
branch. He can only appi-opriato the knowledge obtained by translating 
it into his own tongue and giving it an exact value alongside of knowl¬ 
edge already in his possession. In short, a man can only be well edu¬ 
cated in tm language in which he thinks, hany yav» of experience and 
obseirvation have led me to believe that the Brazilian boy who is eduoat 
8d at home, In his own language,snicJi he nes been obliged to cultivate 
and whose lltei'eture he has been compelled to study, is far more use¬ 
ful to his people,with an inferior technical equipment, than tho one 
who nas been educated abroad in far better institutions,but who have 
been partly denoMix denationalized. 

iiy observation of the Oriental- people wno have come to Bra¬ 
zil from our Oiiristian colleges .where Bngllsh is tne medium of instruc¬ 
tion, is that tiiey have a knowledge of English whieh is neither dis¬ 
criminating nor uniform among stuuents from tne same institution. 
Scientific terms are used loosely and vaguely,to a far greater degree 
than among braeilian students educated in the l. S .or .iurope.wnere 


there is ® «latlonshlp among rhe Spoken tongues. 

„ Green,who foundea to a J^edloal 8ohool at ;aff 

Instruction in Knglish so unsatisfactory that he aji 
"eVicine^ into Tamil a'cLS'e sysLm 

^ A very great service to be rendered by missionary oonaies 

the^'^eo^if notive tongue text-books adapted to the needs 

■ P“^ood in the lUeratuw 

end traditions of tn© country. This is a work of great difficulty and 

e»ne."e.tiona. Truth is one and the zx 
Baip.e and the people who are to be led to it.whether In science liter¬ 
atus or religion.must have it in a medium t^twairelatrit’to 

needs. Given in a strange tongue it is in danger of 
BioJluro,because of its commercial value,and minimising 
the real purpose of educating the few that they may minister to the ^ 
many to whom the missionary school and college are not accessible. 

Cur experience in Brazilian education and observation of the Orientals 
is tfiat tne exotic process ostran^res, rotner tnat draws them nearer to 
their people, 

^nny of our higher Usances branciies are taught through 
English and ^nierican text-books,but we are workir^ steadily in the 
line ox putting the texts into i-ortugues©,Gnd we demand of everyoxie 
of our professors a good Knowledge of Portuguese, - its grammar,the 
value 01 words in tnelr Special association. The word may be derived 
from the same root as the corresponding word in English,particularly 
our .,atin-j.ngli8h; but the instructor must make a cs-iticai study of 
the language of the books, tho* his conversation may be faulty and 
his pronunciation atrocious. He must be able to convey the exact 
meaning of technical words and phi^ses- Much is mad© of Knglish.but 
ell accurate knowledge must enter the students mind tni-ough the motii- 
er tongue - he must digest and assimilate the knowledfS in his own 
mind. Kngllsh literature is of most value to the foreigner wlien ’well 
translated, and the task of the translator is almost as difficult as 

that of the aulnor. -vraong the many learned men who have attempted to 
render the "^uziadas" in English,only one seams to have caught the 
Spirit and meaning of the author and tiie rhytlim of the i ortuguese . 

The above is necessarily loose and imperfect. I should soy 
that t/ie greatest Otenger from teaching everything in linglish would be 
that of detaching th^ student I'rom his people and send him to vend his 
new knowledge in a better market. 

Yours very sincerely, 

il. 1 . I'hne . 


0 P Y . 


Not Yoyjt^ 13th., 1003. 

}sy Saar T)r. ?:iliOToo(i; 

With yefsronce to our Conforono© with tho oonoral 
Asoacsblv's Oommlaalon on aduoatiorral emo'r.'aonta, it aoaiss to sw that 
tha fovir principles Kovornine the aeleefeion of Inotitntiona to h« 
included in the worK of the Comlsalcm, 'thich wro aot forth hy hr. 

Kc GonrloR, l)r. nehey and i«r. Jehmtan, covered all the twenty-five 
inatitutiona which were sjibrfdtted to the Ceiardoaion on our list, vre 
had already eriialniito-d our sIa or ueven hundred dsy-sahoolu end noai^. 
ly two thirds of our high inatltutiona includint: many that might easi¬ 
ly be deoisjod entitled to th© attention end fie&latance of the Com¬ 
mission on the hasiH of the principlea erainainfJd by the r^nAoro of 
the tJOEKiaaion at our Conferena©. I was lurpreaood hu l llatenod to 
what they aald, with th« fact thet wo had almost unconaciously plcRod 
out the very institutions which from whet waa anid hy the Ooissiasicn 
legitisnatoly fell within its field. 

“Plio fO!ir principles which were eapeoielly ©piphaoi«!od voto the 
follownig: - 

1. Pr. Wa CorteioR pointed out that thn geneslB of the r.ovo- 
swnt lay In part in the piiMla educational aystoti in the ^st, where 
our denoEilnatlonal oolloeos ware at an Irsaonae disadvantago in cor.w 
perison with the atato Univoraitioa and other institutionu, hsiaviiy 
supported hy ths 8tata , nnd uniharaoteriged by tho lnflu«^oe6^»hich 
wo boliovo to ho vital in educstlon. Aocordinely the Ooeimiaeicn 
would need to bo hV principle involved here of atrorcthen- 

Ing our InstitutlomBa acsinst uuch uoculnr ooEpetitien. 

B. It. Wa CorrsicR <^jrthor pointed out that it was tho ondow- 


- » - 

rwnt prinoiplo Htjra uppe-rcat in tJin AaaaFiilj'a tPoueht am 

ttet prlKarUy t’*osa inatltutiona ■<ro 14 fall nixhin CohMsaion'a 
jocpe whisSi wo hollevad tr nsod nni >,e lajtitijsatnly ontiUed to 
perRiarioni; OTVjGwmnt. 

S. Dr. Dlekey pointed out; m » .ftirtiior prinnlplo, thfet t)io 
6 ruic-.T» 5 nt ptirpoae in tfio ititv*. o<- S 7 ;e Aaaerbly, In tlie ernation of 
the CoFffi>iaoion, tho ;«»i.ply of the ShrlntlHn Blnlatry znA that its 
ucops tsiot. TKJt ba .-JO rarrow m to exclude the r»ut b^lpfui and fo.-jtOT- 
ins influenco, on the i«rt of tho Oorr-,ia»icn, of Inutltntlons douinned 
to imreaae the niunher of Ohriatinn nlniatera find -/orhsr.e. 

4 . Sr. ..rnhnatpn added a fourth r-rlnnipie, noEoly: thRt there 
wvtt atyatogl-3 oentrea vthere the conditions at proaent el!orod for 
only 3 ore or las« enbyronlo stage of oduoationnl development, iwU 
whore the very intereata that the OeRfral Aeaemhly hed in view, ro- 
'luirod that atrone efforta utjould he put «>rth to sslntsin nnd up- 
huild indtitutiona on which the atrencth ss-vt life of the Church will 

I do not reimtabor that the Coan-iasion nnsworM definitely for 
ua th.e 'luoation aa to the adr'iselon of inatitutlona for the training 
of woi'icn, }»y improaeion «&« t?tat, tho Oopislaaion waa not prepwrivl to 
exclude such institutiona, provided th«y fell within the prinaiploa 
^uat onunoiated. 

It Kiight ho wall, howo'/or, to eat off t’v? Inutltittlona for tho 
thftinlnc of iUrla and woKtm ofiihreood in our llwt, In a aoperste class. 
It iu eaaily pcaairlo to olaaoify the institutiona wbi-h wo subKittod 
to the aorEiisslon in oooordfthoo with tho ebovo principles, with this 
exoaption, however; that ±nvs conditions reftarred to by 1 *. He OonaieK 
In the first principle, apply both to our coHe^oa and to other in~ 

stituticna, uaoh ntt thoao hy nr. JoHraitor., wJiioJi are 

not yot of hleJ) oollocvista grMo, tjut lafo of a» hicn £1 *S(Sg ea lu 

i?'. ''lew of tae aonditioiiB 'hich t!wy ooiifjfont, end whioh ora 
9 dvs.ncirtg th-jir cwido front year to year as they «ro able to.liin tha 
lavol of t?i:3 oduoatlonnl life of the nationo in tha r-iAat of r’lioh 
t hay ere plantf^. TTiore 4» nO state ooRpetitlon or saipport hero In 
Aiiterica, aoctparabla in its oreru'miSovririE influonse, with the urioular 
Btat«5 edtinetlon with which wa have to eontoml on the Mission field 
in India, ami Ja:j«n at-rf Brasil, and Oluli arvj other pertn of the nilw- 
alon •’i‘i.i in anch cantma, finr oxa^'gtlo, «a '? 0 her«n atid ijanghoX. 

Arranging the iniititiiliona which w® avumiittea in Baoordanoa 
with the prinoiplaa of tho Corasiasion, I would mcsoat the fcllorlnE 
dlv'iMion : 

1. Institistiona of oollogiato ranX, vrhich art* sa legal objoatu 
of en;l''WRt»nt na any InatltutiOTasu at hotaa: ~ 

(1) ShantBRg Oolloga, Wei Haion, Ghina 

(3) Ponann Christian Sollono, Lahore, Indio 

(8) 'Jhe Gl'riatian 'Joliege, Ailahaba'i, Iisiia 

(4) Tho Proal-ytoricn Collese, Hftngahow, Ohltrt 

(sj Uoiji oakuin, foKyo, .Tepan 

(G) unjwlB Oolloi-e, Persia 

2. Inatltutiona for tho t-raining of itsiniatora and Oliriatien work¬ 

ers: - 

(1) ?r>oolO£lcel Sersinary, Saharanpnr, India 

(3 ) Trainlr^- Sohool for Christian workers, Ifcnila, P. I. 

(3) Theolocical Seminary, Ooyoaoan, 'iexioo 

(4) Training school of tn® WosT, Africa I'ission 

(5) Oira^ Institute, Sllon, Syria. 

(S) Pati School, Onntcn, Shins 

(?) Seoul Aondeiriy, Seoul, Korea. 

3. Institutiona In atmtegic contres, doing tho hlcheat grado of 
work danfinded by the corelltlcna ond dovoloping their grade as the 
conditions oltor: - 

(1) Ohrlatiwn Boys* School, Bnry'kok, Sinn. 

(3) The Boys' i'OjooI in Tohornn, Poruln 

- 4 - 



hiKher Inatiiauions for th» trainlnc of yottng wojnon: - 

.I'eshi Gakuin, 'ToKyo, Japan 
Beirut P®K«lei Serainsyy Syria 

Rossinsry, Oanten China. 

Pi»l(.a gfttnimyy- Untcila, J^ersia 
ITcjotiatooK Sohooi, Inaio 

i^T Oirla, HanjsKok, Siats. 

Oirla* So)iool, Paotinefw. China’ 

llm fit Gistinotton bst"?oan ihose olmnnti in mn nl\?aya 
oloar. tho Seoul Aoasomi’ falls, .for oxas-pio, ■susMn both seoona 
am third. ?he Shantiing am neXiiin both Java th.»ao-lo4l 

dopertmento, ’shllo tho ’fhaolojjioal SoKimry at Coyoaoan hao an aca- 
dmdfj departBont, whioj, x% mo plnnnod to sate oollogiato In ttp-o, 
The Joa’ii GaKuin, woroovar, or,o of cur inetitutlotia foT W!;«n, haa 
« ck-opartriant of ccllogiate renH. 

X hope that thia etr.twient Kay bo of aorvico to you in your 
prosontation of tho ?aattor to tho Cojowisaion. 

Very fnithiUlly y.jura, 



Cable Address 
■•Inculcate,” New York. 
A. B. C. CODC, 4th Edition. 



the board of foreign missions 


Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 
156 Fifth Avenue, 

New York. 

rhe Kev. a. J, Brown, p,D, 

:;/o Tiie rtev, V/n.i'yxton, C.3. 

Hy uear Dr. Brown: 

Brinceton, B.J. 


You may remomber that sometime ago. Dr .Ellimvood 
Staten in Council that he had hoard from Dr.hoberts that the General 
Assembly College Endowment Committee would meet in Philadelphia to-day, 
and t.:e Council appointed ;,r.irand and me to go over. I wrote on Sat¬ 
urday to Dr.iioberts ashing him tlie hour and place oP the meeting and 
he telegraphed that the meeting would be held, not to-day, but on 
riiursday, the ilth. . It will be impossible for rne to go then as I 
have to speak that day in Utica and it is an engagement of long stand 
ing, which I cannot break. i.r.i^and cannot go as you and Dr.Ellin- 
wood and Dr.kalsey are all away and will be all this week, so that 
unless you can be present at the meeting, wo shall be unrepresented. 

Mr.Hand and I have consulted on the subject and feel that it would 
be very desirable if you could be present, and that indeed this is 
t'ne only way in which the Board can be represented. 

iho meeting will be 'neld in ‘he ■.'.'itherspoon Building 
at eleven o'clock in tlie morning. You can leave Princeton at 9.44, 
reacliing the Broad st,station at 11.ID, which would be ample time 
and you could leave the -road Ut..station at 12."5, reaching Princeton 
at 1.53. I think these connections are correct, but it might be well 
to verify them from the time table, which gou doubtless have with you. 

You would )iave all the way over to Philadelphia and 
back to work on yotir lacl’U’e and a couple of hours after returning to 
i rinceton. You would not need to be with the commission vei y long 

You would not need 

Xhs Itev.A. J. Xrown ,D . p. 2. 

and you would liave ample time for lunch in t.ho Broad .^t.slalion "oo- 
fors leaving foi- Irinceton. 

I enclose herewith Dr.Boherts' iettor with some papero 
which he forwari'ieu. it is a little dinconcorting, especially quest¬ 
ions 1 and 6. I preseurae that the Committee will not need at once 
answers to 3, 4 or 5, inasmuch as these inquiries v/ers not sent to 
us at all, except in reply to my letter, and doubtless the Commission 
intended to inform us when we met that it would like to have this in¬ 

With reference to ,iuostlon 1, the following was the lie 
which we drew up for the Committee: 

1. dhantung College, '.Ve i Hsien, China 

2. i'ianila Training dc'nocl f'r Christian workers,i.anila, 
Philippine Islands/ 

3. Meiji Gakuin 

4. Christian Boys hoarding Cchool, 3arg:ok, ..lam 

5. Joshi Gakuin, Tokyo, Japan 

6. Boys' School, Chieng iai, Laos 

7. Presb 3 ''terian College, hangohow, China 
6. Training School, .rifrica 

9. Ihe Forman Christian College, Laiu're , Ind la 

10. Boys Broading School, .reking, China 

11. Christian College at Allahabad 

12. Beirut Female Seminary, Syria 

13. Boys Sc'nool, Teheran, iersia 

14. Gerard Institute, Sidion,Syria 

15. College i. Theoi.oem. Coyoacan, hexico 

16. Girls School, ^aotingfu, Cnirm 
1.7. Theol.Seminary, Saharanpur, India 

18. Seoul Academy, Seoul, F.orea 

19. Institute Ingles, Santiago, Chile 

20. Fati school, Canton, China. 

21. b’rumia College, Persia , 

22. True '..ight Seminary for Women, Canton,^ 

23. Fiske seminary for '■.'omen, ui'umia, iersia 

24. '..oodstock School, India 

25. Harriet House Boarding ...chool for .rirls, .Bangkok,oiam 
hr..-and and I have gone over and picked out the following nine 
institutions, although it is no easy work making this reduction, and 
you may not feel that the list justly represents the needs of your 


Shantung Oollogc* 

Chniistii^n yOtiogG 

Xhe lieV. j, Brown ,l;.'.. y. . 

Allahabad Christian College 
iifiiischow Presbyterian College 
Caharanyur Xheolocical Ceminary 
College tc Tehol.-jeny. CoyoaCan ,' lexico 
•ieoul Academy 
ileiji Gakuin 

this leaves out all the schools for women. If we have to cut out 
some one, I should be disposed to drop Lahore, not because it is not 
needed, for it and tiie .fnantunm College are tiie two most distinctive¬ 
ly falling within t' o scope of tl.e Comnission, but it is practically 
self-supporting and does not need xielp as some cf the others do, un¬ 
less we want to endow the profescorshi'ps occupied by missionaries, 
which undoubtedly is a good project. 

jith reference to question 6, that raises an altogether 
new issue. Cannot you in your customary tactf”i way, persuade the 
Commission that t-is expanse ought to be met out of the General As¬ 
sembly's affluent nest-egel Jurely wo oug’nt net, if we can help 
it, have to take the m.oney out of our treanwy for this expense, with 
no very bright prospect of getting any return; with every likelihood, 
however of what we we will get through our own efforts, going to the 
credit of’the Commission. 

I am writing Dr-Roberts, explaining why lir.i-and 
and I cannot come, stating that we have written to you and that we 
hope you may be able to be present. 

I hope the lectures are going off well, as I am 

sure tl'iey are. 

Very affectionately yours. 



February Qth, 1904. 


Dear Bbbterbn :— 

In bslialf of the Synod of India we wish to lay before you the needs of the field in which 
you and we are fellow-workers. We cannot begin without thanking you for all the help sent in 
years past, and for the love and prayers hack of your gifts, making them so precious. We are 
not unmindful of what has already been done in the name of our Lord from one end of India to 
the other. He has wrought in many ways, so that not a few of the choicest minds have had their 
thoughts coloured by his teaching, and a new India is slowly emerging out of the darkness of cen¬ 
turies. New sects, both among Hindus and Mahommedans, are springing up into which are 
pressing the many dissatisfied with the old, those who have felt in some measure the truth of 
Christ’s teaching and are striving to reform the old systems without Christ as their teacher. The 
illustrations are not a few of the attempt to pour new wine into old bottles. It is not, however, 
the thought of the educated in India, full of unrest, which has moved us to call for many more 
missionaries to be sent out in the near future, as it is the thought of the millions in the villages 
who are practically without the knowledge of Christ, and so without life and without hope. 
Nearly ninety per cent of the people of India live in villages, and are as yet but feebly touched 
by the Christian influences which have begun to work such great changes among the educated in 
the cities. Only seven per cent of the people of India know how to read, and probably not two of 
these seven per cent live in the villages. It was stated recently in the Mahommedan Educational 
Conference that out of the forty millions of Mahommedans in India not more than forty thousand 
women and girls are able to read. If the ignorance of the mass of the people is so great, as 
shown by the above facts, what shall we say of the ihany sad and degrading customs which hind 
and afSiot the people, such as child marriage, and as a consequence child widowhood ; such as 
caste and its putting under feet millions upon millions, consigned by the higher castes to be their 
serfs and scavengers with no hope of deliverance; such as idolatry, some of the finest temples in 
India dedicated to the worship of the cow and monkey, and in nearly every village of North In¬ 
dia the worship of an image too shameful to mention. It is the thought of the millions in the 
villages, and at our door, which in recent years has moved many missionaries of different Socie¬ 
ties to unite in urgent appeals to Christians in Europe and America to enlarge their plans and 
gifts and force of workers. A tardy appreciation of the magnitude of the work, of the greatness 
of the obstacles in the way, of the inadequacy of the force at work and of the opportunities neg¬ 
lected_it is these things, pressed upon us we cannot but believe by the spirit of Jesus, which 

have led us once again to send to you an appeal for a large force of men and women to come out 
to India and take part in the work. "We appeal to those to whom God has given an income 
which will enable them to come at their own charges, using the gifts bestowed on them in behalf 
of Him who though He was rich yet for our sakes became poor. 

The work is varied. We have Schools of every grade in which those who love teaching can 
find a sphere. We have places in which medical missionaries, men and women, would soon find 
their hands full, ministering to the sick and winning an entrance to their hearts. Those, too 
with literary and linguistic gifts would find a wide field. Christian literature is yet in its infancy 
in India, and there is urgent need of expositions of the Word and text-books for the instruction 
of the rapidly growing Church. There is not a gift which will not find a field for its exercise in 
India. All we ask is that those who come shall have a call from God which leads them, with some¬ 
thing of the experience and spirit of Isaiah, to say to the Lord, “ Here am I, send me.” And 
those thus called, with the training and preparation gained in Christian schools and ooUeges, 
will soon find work filling their hearts and hands. 

We need hardly say that we are urging young men in India to join with us in this service.* 
We have now connected with the Synod thirty-eight ordained Indian Ministers, thirty-seven licen¬ 
tiates, eighteen theological students, and about two hundred and fifty teachers, colporteurs, and 
workers of various grades, in addition to the forty-six ordained foreign missionaries. But what 
are these among more than fifteen million of people scattered in thirty thousand villages to 
whom, in the ordering of the Lord of the harvest, it is laid on us to give the Gospel. 

While the large additions to our churches in some Districts in recent years, call forth thanks¬ 
giving, yet in view of the ignorance of most of the converts, very few of whom are able to read when 
baptized; in view of their abject poverty, most of them earning not more than two dollars a month; 
in view, as well, of the depressing and degrading influences under which they have always lived, 
and still Uve, we cannot look to these converts, in their present state, to furnish the teachers and lead¬ 
ers needed. Through Summer Schools and Training classes we are doing all wo can to lift them 
up and prepare workers from them, but this is slow work and requires at once a much larger force 
than we have. It is this need, now urgent and growing, which has had its part in leading us to 
unite in the call for a large reinforcement in the near future. And we may believe that our Lord 
has guided us in sending this call to you. We are encouraged, therefore, in the name of Him 
who has brought into our lives so much light, strength, peace and hope, to ask you to turn your 
eyes to those who sit in darkness, the very shadow of death, and hear Him say, “ How, then, 
shall they call on him in whom they have not believed ? and how shall they believe in him whom 
they have not heard ? and how shall they hear without a preacher ? and how shall they preach 
except they be sent ? even as it is written How beautiful are the feet of them that bring glad 
tidings of good things 1” 

With affectionate regard, in behalf of the Synod of India, 

We are 

Yours fraternally, 



* Tbe Committee in iRBuing an address to the Oburohes of tlie Synod, urging the observance of a monthly 
concert of prayer for the work in India, and making an appeal to young men to consecrate themselves to the 
service of the Lord. 

From Letter of the Sev.J.G.Dunlop, 

Dated Fu'-aii, Japan, Oot.28,1908. 

Yon will prohalily h/ivo iiojird from some one who attended it, of 
tile reoont raedtine of the .'^nod, 'fho most Ijiportant actions were the 
extension till iiaroh olst of tho tino for arrangine; pljins for cooperation 
and tho change in tho constitution of the 3ynod. It is to ho hence¬ 
forth a popular ratlicr than a representative asserahly. Any minister 
who has the status of ftill memher of Prosbiitoiy I'lay tfu<e his seat in the 
Synod also as a voting menhor. An older lilcevdso may he olooted to 
Sjmod hy evory indopondont church; and all associate l'■onhors of Ci-eehjiterjr 
may have the samo status in Synod—pastors and la^^ roxirosentativos of 
aosistod churches ; nd missionaries of cooperating missions. 

There is so little open discussion in this country that I luivo 
so f;ir seen no printed criticism of this cliango tind I lU've mot no min¬ 
ister or missionary to talk to about it, so I am all In the dar-k as to 
its moaning. It seems a strange cluatie for any chui-ch to make that has 
faith in its own growth. It seems to me another confession of tlie 
inevitable failure of representative institutions in Jap.Ji at its pre¬ 
sent stage, and a further innioatlon of the Japanese la-eferencep for central* 
ization of authority. Tho result of tho olungo, if it passes the 
Presbyteries and becomes law, will be, not vhat it scorns, an extension 
of representation, but rather a decrease, with an inoroaso of the powers 
of tho T'ondn-K^oysx and of the ’'older atateBmen’’of tlie church. 

I enclose a cutting which seems to me an intorestinj; illustration of tiro 
Japanese inclination for despotic centralization. It seems incredible 
that any intelligent public man could believe that parliamentary candidates 
in .England are otiiorwlso than populiirly and locally chosen, but this 

man seems to think tliat the rexJrosontHtives of the people are chosen hy 
a headquarters oorciittoe In tondon! any rate it in plain that that 
is the Japanese ideal. I am sending; you a llttlo hook published some 
years ago by "rSinzo IJohinura, the Japanese Carlyle, vhioh you )nay never 
have seen. I happened on it this morninf: HBionf; ry langruaeo bool®, and 
it stiaick rao as belnj as true a piotiu-e of the yosent as of the yoro* 
wlien Uohinwa wote it . lUAv "iani' ffenerations will it take a nal.lon 
so handicapped by Confucian mor.alityas this poor little ono is to produce 
a r.inooln or a isioiftfaiifist SladstoneV Uchinura's critic of his C'AUitry 
and oountrisaen brinirs to mjr mind the main contention of an esssp by T. S. 
Lilly, which J. road nearly twenty yo-ors ago that constitutions, parlia¬ 
ments, etc., do not constitute tnio liberty, they are only the pledi^es 
or Instnmionts of liberty. Liberty comes in but one v/ay - "Yo sliall 
know the truth and the truth .shall make you free." Die Truth is oonine 
in In this leJid, but even in the Clniroh there is much Confucian rubbish 
yet to be cpov^ded out. 

From Central China Presbyterian Mission. 

We had a fereat meeting of Synod. The cable from hr. -Roberts was 
a little late reaching us, but perhaps that was providential, as wo 
had th e opportunity of canvassing the opinions of all on the plan of 
onion while in a measure of uncertainty as to the action of Assembly. 

The Southern Presbyterian Mission (Mid-China) had organized a presbytery, 
on the Amoy plan, the missionaries keeping their memberfhip at home, 
but being in’/lted by the Chinese to membership without being subject 
to jurisdiction in the new presbytery. They came up to Hanking suppos¬ 
ing that plan was certainly pleasing to us, both Chinese and foreigners. 
The request fi’om Cur Synod in heoeraber, and the reports of the Committee 
of Union, naturally ga-ve them that idea. I had myself no idea of the 
strength of tho opposition of the plan on the part of the Chinese of 
our Synod. Ue debated witii them all of one day and part of another, 
as to ths advantages of theplan; and finally they gave in, against their 
wills, because they sa?; we desired the Amoy plan. Their difficulty 
was three-fold. First, they felt that the newly erected presbytery 
ought to conform to the old, not the older body to the new. Then, they 
oould not be persuaded that the foreigners who had so Tong been in full 
membership with them would go out in a body and cling to American juris¬ 
diction, and yet wish to have share in the disciplining of the Chinese, 
unless there! was at bottom lack of faith in tliem, the Chinese preachers. 
TJiird, the Amoy plan was not according to the Book, and they evidently 
did not consider it a good plan. As I have said, they at last consent¬ 
ed to a compromise, which was brought in hy good Pastor Tsang of Ilaag- 
ohow, to consummate the union, allowing eao]i presbytery to enter on the 
basis of present membership; allo\fing foreigners who had not brought 
their letters to choose whether they shbuld join the Chinese presbytery 
by letter or no, and giving each presbytery the right to invite mission¬ 
aries to sit as assessors, with the power to vote if sufficient reason 

By some mistake in copying on the hlackhoard, where the resolutions 
were written, the second resolution was ambiguously worded, so that 
to the foreigners it meant, that if we chose to take our letters back 
from the Chinese to the American Church, we might do so, the fresbyteries 
being directed to give the letters when asked for. That was the very 
door Mr. Tseng had not intended to open'. Bat as the resolution was about to be voted on, when the vote was called all but two of the 
Chinese voted for it, in a sort of desperation. There was terrible 
heaviness of heart, however, and those who voted no, at once counselled 
the rest to hasten toward the day of complete Indepiendenoe, of American 
money as well as American co-presbyters. Few had untroubled rest that 
night, and there was fear that the attempt at union with the Southern 
brethren's churches would result in the breaking down of our longtried 
mutual confidence and respect in our own Church. Imagine then the 
relief on Saturday morning. May 26th, when a motion to reconsider was 
carried, and one of the foreigners brought in a series of six resolutions, 
afterward increased to seven, v/hieh put the whole question of foreign 
memhers-hip in another light, and made harmoniovt union easily and 
immediately effective? The Holy Spirit had been evidently present, 
and at that moment His presence was felt hy all. Tlie gist of the 
resolutions was, that presbyteries should come into the union as they 
were already constituted; and the final decisionof basis of membership 
should be decided by the presbyteries themselves. Those viio come 
from home do not need to bring their letters, and will be given every 
ooui'tesy I am .sure, by the presbyteries; but we vho are members now 
of the presbyteriesare, like the India Missionaries, separated from 
the American Church. nothing is said about our going back to the home 
Chnroh; hut as oooasien offers, we will take our letters, one at a time, 
and so the presbyteries will gradually become entirely Chinese bodies. 



Thas, Having wrung from the Chinese a reluctant consent to the Amoy 
plan, we won hack their confidence hy throwing in our lot with them. 
Hearts were full and eyes -were moist, when after the unanimous vote 
for the resolutions and for the union, we sang "Praise Cod from whom 
all hlessings flow." I think the whole dehate was a revelation to our 
Southern brethren, too, -Ao have had few preachers, and were much 
struck hy the ahillty and orderliness of our 'trained guard' . Their 
presence gave them an Insight into our problems and working conditions 
which v/111 tend to make the union more real and deep than might other¬ 
wise have been the case. 

ll\TIUCI FROL jiGIira OF J. DATIDSOII ERAL3, - Dated Jan. 22nd, 1909, Roaht, Aeraia, 


boon after my return from Annual ^otinc I roauimd tJio trips to oountr- 
toa houaoa and bazaars of wliioh 1 told you in my last letter, but r.ave not boon ^ 
able to make as lone trips as formerly because of the short days and the bad 
roads, -'his last v/eek, hovzovor, the v/eathor was so ttoeatening and the roads 
so bad that I di d n ot undertaioo the trip, fhoso trips havo given me a chance to 
get quite closo Kjn to the country people, 'fhoy perhaps show tlieir ignorance 
and superstition quioloer than the city people, but one soon finds that both 
prevail very generally. Lvon Persians who have boon to Ihirope a d have a good 
education aro not entirely free fro'i the latter. You may perhaps be interested 
to 'mow of some of tho beliefs and ideas v^hioh prevail, 'fhey affect our work 
most closely. 

Spoaleing first of what they do loiov; or thinlc they laiow, I have been 
surprised at the ejrtont even the villagors "oiov; the standard Lloslem objections 
to Christianity, '..'o are not morely up against a people VJho do not know tho 
beauties of Christ's love, but they liave boon drilled from ohildiiood to consider 
Christians deceivers and the book \7e offer false, •'•'hey claim Christ as one of 
thoir prophets and one of the biggest of t'/ie prophets and that the true Bospel 
is the v/ord of God, but tiiat it Jias boon taken up to hoavon -nd that tiie book we 
offer is a forgery, or at least altered. I ronorally start in by taking up the 
purely .oral side of ■^osus' teaching, hoping to really interest tJiom before dis¬ 
cussing Ills personality, but before long ooraoono is almost certain to ask, "Did 
not Christ foretell the coming of -lohammed ?" As soon as I deny this they become 
indifferent or suspicious. In spoalcing of t)ie death of Jesus I am often con¬ 
fronted with tho Los.em tradition tiiat Jesus was not crucified at all, but tliat 
Cod i.rovidod a substitute on the cross. Lore t'lan once a villager has gravely 
informed that it ' evident they imev; as mudi about Jesus as I did. I could 
multiply details, but it is unnecessary, iiaving gotten them to .admit my right to 
talk about tho Gospel, .as soon as i try to ot them to consider thoir d-aty towards 
it I am mot ivith to tho a oonciitsivc proof, ■'•'he koran iiaving como after tho 
Gospel of course supersedes it. 

2hU3, th-3 peoplo often insist upon argument .and a discussion of proofs, 
but thoir minds cannot reason as v;e understand it and thoir ignorance oven on tho 
points they think tiximsolves best informed is appalling. A man not long ago 
tr;dng to use the. toohnioal .'■.rabio , ord for "abrogated" threw mo off tho track 
for a long time by using tho word for "abrogating." Another tried to rule Lo- 
hammed out of the class of false -rophets against vSiom Jesus had TTamed us by 
claiming that tho adjective "false" was in tlie -rominino. hothor lie thought he 
could catch me, or whether he was actually ignorant, I merely romindod him that 
any plural Arabic noiui roquiros the foralnine form of tho adjective. 

Aside from certain controvorsal points tliey aro in absolute ignorance 
of thoir religion. In this they .are not so r.uioh to blame,for tho Shiia form 
of Islam which prevails hero has little fikod and standard doosa, and oaoh 
d>ijbahid can interpret the IG ran and traditions as ho pleases, '..hilo there are 
some things upon wliich a,ll agree, a feiv enquiries among the people call forth 
a groat diversity of ansv/or. iiome of this is pure ignoronoo and tho rest due 
to '.Ufforouoes botwoon tho loaders. 'fhcre is a verse in tho .ioran vihich pro¬ 
nounces tho £ood of tho people of tho Book (i.o. Jews and Christians) clean. 
Current opinion considers it unclean. Asking various people how th^ reconcile 
this discrepancy I have received tho following diverse replies: 

"You'are entirely I'.isfcaJien. 'flioro is no such verse in the Koran. ' 

"Yho Koran refers to dry food s oh a-, bread, '..'lich is clean." 

"Ly personal opinion is tliat tho mujtahids have made a nistalto." 

"She mujtahids are not unanimous on that point." 

"You who call yourselves CJiristians arc not really tho people of tlio 
book, because trou liave not Kho true Gospels, i'liat has boon recalled to heaven." 


One has similar difficulties to contend v;ith in redioal work, it is 
a coraoion ocourronco to have a man walk up to the doctor and say, "I am sick. 

..hat's the i.-iattor with no ?" Ho refuses to ans or questions or describe symptoms. 
Finally, with a . ityinf; smile .at the doctor’s i:rnor,'>noo, ho will offer his v/rist 
for tho doctor. This used to bo a croat trial to :.o \intil I hoard the followinc 
story, '.hioh it scorns is current amonc tho people. 

". lato was not only a ijroat philosopher, but .also a fproat physician. 

Ue booano so skilful in aking the diagnosis from a 3 i£;ht f tlio .ationt ■ r feel¬ 
ing his pulse, that finally iw was only necessary to tie a string around the 
patient's wist an.' carry the other end to ilato, r.o matter how far away lio might 
bo for him to maico tiio diagnosis and give tiie traat:.jont. One day some wags, 
thii&ing to tost his skill, died tho string to a do^^'s paw, hut i'lato injoediatoly 
perceiTod that it was not attached to a man but to a beast." In a way, my 
patients in preserving a silence are ooinplii'.onting me. Since hoar:ng tho story 
I h'Vo been able at times to get the nan to give a proper account of himself by 
saying, "I am not the equal of ilaSo. Floase descriho your symptoms to ise." 

Iverywiioro tho belief in tho evil eye is current. One eust never 3 e 
anything or show any satisfaction ith a thing -.Ithout adding tho formula "As 
Qod wills." ■'•’ooently, while dressing a case, another v.'as sitting by and remarked 
fDooly on the patient's evident imp-rovoment without using this i'ormula. The 
patient's servant, who acoomi;nnied :".e liome, complained bitterly ofl such careless¬ 
ness and was eridGntly greatly frightened. ^ho s-mo patient .and liis f-’rdly 
bosou^t mo to put all strangers and visitors out of the room before I dressed 
his wound, 'i'hoy said, "There are all kinds of eyes and, God forbid, -omo of these 
visitors may have tho evil eye. '. o do not 'wnow." Tet this . an in his dealings 
with me and care of himself has boon one of the ; .ost sonsiblo patients I have 
ever had in Persia. 

Some years ago a Persian traveling .with me used this superstition very 
effectively. One night wo ..ore refused horses at a post house. He went into 
the stable and begasi praising the sniiaals there \.lthout using the proper formula. 
Tho driver booamo greatly frightened .-md gave us the animals immediately. 

Some time ago a fjatient vith a "cold sore" called it an 'out of season." 
On enquiry I found the idea '..'as tliat cold sores, black and blue spots, etc. wore 
the \/ork of spirits who touched a vsxi wh.'lo ho v.'as out alono at night, etc. 

It is very liard to get a Persian to sleep alone oven with others on the same 
premises for fear of these spillts. I once triod my best to ge'o a servant to do 
so, but every morning ho had a now.' tale of voices and fears during tho night 
■until I gave it up. 

They believe, too, that sometimes a serpent slips into their stomaolis. 

The only way to gst rid of him is to visit a certain shrine .and that is his pur¬ 
pose for tho king of t}ieae serpents lives near this siirine .and they must pay 
him abeisanoe. It being easier to ride than to w/alk, tho serpents choose a 
huji'an veloicle. As the victim approaches the shrine ho is seized with an attack 
of vomiting, .and the serpeiit escapes, but woe to tho victim vnio sees the serpent, 
for that man dies. His companions ay see it with impunity. 

'.Veil, I think I have told you enouj^ for one time of igoioranoe and 

Report of Committee on Securing- the Sympathy and Services of 
Christian Graduates for Mission Tork, 

October 1918. 

On the one hand we recognize the primary importance of en¬ 
listing ^he services of less highly educated and less highly paid 
men in large numbers for work as Teachers and Preachers among the 
n-umerous communities of low caste people nov. coming into the 
Christian fold. On the other hand, we believe that it is not ohly 
a wise policy, but a necessary factor in the successful prosecution 
of our work in this country to secure the cordial cooperation and 
services of a oentain number of more highly educated Indian Christ¬ 
ians who by reason of superior capacity and character shall be able 
to act as leaders and organizers, and to occupy positions of con¬ 
siderable trust and responsibility as superintendents of districts. 
It is a matter of great regret and of serious reflection that for 
many years no graduate or undergrad of Collegiate training has taken 
up evangelistic work in our Mission, and only one or two who have 
passed the matriculation standard have elected to take the theologi¬ 
cal coiirse in our Geminary with a view to the Gospel Ministry. 
Undoubtecly present conditions in this country are peculiar, and 
we may not be able to find any perfectly satisfactory solution of 
the problem before us. But we may note some of the difficulties 
existing in tiie minds of the abler young men which lie in the way 
of securing them for Mission service and suggest some measures 
t^ioh may possibly obviate those difficulties. 

1. Salary. This is ijrobhbly not the most difficult element in the 
' pro blem, for we are frequently told by our Indian Christians 
^that the matter of pay does not affect the ease very greatly. i"e 


- 2 - 

think it likely that the scale of salaries and allowances which 
is now being adopted by our mission will satisfy the needs that 
that are usually expressed, viz., that nn educated man should be 
able to maintain hii^self in an appropriate decent and respectable 
fashion, and that he should be able to give his children a fair 

". Future Prospects. Greater stress is laid upon prospects than 
Ui-on pay by young men contemplating Mission service. They are 
naturally anxious about making provision for the time when for any 
cause they may become disabled for work or laid aside. They some¬ 
times contrast the Government service in this respect with service 
in the mission. ^e think, however, that the arrangements now 
made with regard to retiring allowances, and the policies now offered 
by he directors of the Mutual Provident Fund will suffice to meet 
the needs under this head. 

3. Course of stufiy for the Ministry. Objections have been put forward 
sometimes by the young men of Collegiate education that the course 

of study at present furnished at our Saharannur Theological Seminary 
is spread over a longer period then they care to spend for such a 
purpose, and that the curriculum should be modified and improved so 
as to suit heir special case. .Ve think these needs may be met 
either by offering special courses ar Saharanpur which will be like¬ 
ly to attract Christitoi collegiates of the right calibre, or of se- 
cxiring scholarships for selected men at the Serampur Divinity Col¬ 
lege. Another possible alternative is that college graduates he 
permitted to prepare their theological courses in Lahore ( sided 
by Lahore Professors) or privately, and after passing exams appointed 
by synods, present .hemselves before Presbytery for ordinations. 

4. Status in the Mission. Probably the strongest pbjeotion at 

- 3 . 

present influenoing the decision of oiir educated young men, and 
affecting the gens>al sentiment of the Christian community as 
a whole is this, viz,, that mission service is not a service to 
which attaches either honor or credit, and does not offer a sphere 
of suf .'icient responsihility and independence to a young man of 
ability and ambition. Indeed there is a strange feeling of active 
repugnance to mission sei ice which is deep-seated and permeates 
every section of Indian Christian Society. It is commonly spoken 
of as "menial service" and everywhere the feeling prevails that 
the Indian minister is kept in a subordinate position in relation 
to the foreign missionary, is under his authority, is on an-inferior 
footing, has no real voice in matters of Mission administration on 
mission policy etc. In a thoughtful paper written by a leading In¬ 
dian minister and read at the Conference of Christian Workers at 
Mussoorie, it was plainly stated that of late, years Indian Christ¬ 
ians have manifested an attitude of apathy toward missionary work 
in this country. It may be said on the other hand that such feel¬ 
ings are prejudiced, that they are not well founded, that they are 
capricious and fanciful, that too m^ch is expected by Indian Christ¬ 
ians etc, IJevertheless such feelings and such an attitude actually 
exist as stubborn fatrts which cannot be ignored, and it may be ad¬ 
mitted that there are some reasonable grounds for their existance. 
But it must be confessed that it is not easy to suggest the best 
means of dealing with the situation. It is somewhat analagous 
to the state of feeling which has prevailed among educated Indians 
that they were not given a rightful share in the political adminis¬ 
tration of this country. The Government has responded to this hy 
granting to a select number of I ndians seats of votes in its Legis¬ 
lative and Executive Cou.iclls, both Provincial and Imperial. We 


think that if s sijuilar policy ware followed with regard to grant¬ 
ing jrepresentation in our tUssion Meeting, the attitude of aloof¬ 
ness and dissatisfaction eimong Indian Christians might be greatly 
modified, and at the same time the work of the Mission facilitated 
by enlisting the counsel and cooperation of our Indian brethem, 
le by admitting a certain limited number of qualified men from among 
them to share in the deliberation and business of the Mission. 

To this end we recommend as follows; 

(a) That Christian graduates who have been given appofc.i,ments in 
our ilission serttas, either in the educational or evangelistic line, 
shall be eligible to election as oonsulative members of the Mission, 
such election requiring a 3/4 vote of the Mission. 

(b) That after serving for five years such men be eligible to a 
full vote in the Mission, subject to the approval of Mission and 

io) That others who are not University graduates may be elected to 
act as consultative members provided that they are occupying positions 
of Independent respossibility, such for exaaiple as the Superintend¬ 
ence of a District. There are several points in connection with 
this whole question which may be raised against the recommendations 
made above, and these should be referred to. 

(1) it may be said that Christian young men ou ht to possess such 
a-spirit of self-sacrifice and consecration that thoughts of pay, 
prospects and position will not deter them from devoting themselves 
to the serlrlee of Christian evangelistic and missionary work. The 
reply to this is, that while we deplore the lack of high disinterested 
ideals of self-sacrifice among our young men, v/e must remember that 
we have to deal with men as they are and with conditions as they exist t 



I - 

J KoreoTer, it may be remarked that a siioilar condition is complained 
of in America viz, that comparatively few among the ablest young men 
are offering themselves for the gospel ministr, and, it would appear 
for similar reasons as are expressed in this country. 

( 2 ) tt may be said that the admission of Indian brethem as members 
of the Mission on a high scale of pay wi|ii interfere with self- 
support in the IJative Church and hinder the development of a strong 
indigenous church. 

Reply (1) The scale of salaries will remain substantially what has 
already been decided on. (2) The number of men who will be eligible 
for admission to this highest grade will necessarily be small. 

(5) It may be objected that the admission of Indian brethern as 
members of the Mission will hinder the developement of Iresbyteries 
I into independent bodies, comuifcnding the interest and respect of the 
Indian Church. 

Reply- I’e would point out that the Mission and Tresbytery are quite 
different bodies in their constitution and functions, and we do not 
see how membership in an executive committee or Council such as the 
Mission is, v;ould impair th^dr usefullness as Rresbyters or check 
the growth or importance of Presbyteries, especially if the Mission 
relegates to the Presbytei'ies, all such matters as specially pertain 
®o the Native Church in the management of its own eocSesiastioal 
and business affairs. 

On the contrary we can see how it might be greatly to the advantage 
of Presbyteries and will enhance their value and prestige if some 
of their leading Indian members should also be members of the Mission. 
^ iVe are most certainly in favor of placing as much responsibility 
as they are able to carry upon the shoulders of our Indian brethern , 
and we shall be glad to see the Mission as such decrease in proport- 

ion as Presbyteries show their ability to increase and we trust the 
time may not be far distant when the work now carried on by the liis- 
aion shall be transferred gradually to bodies more closely and or¬ 
ganically connected with the Pr' sbyteries and Synods. But there are 
important functions still for the Mission as such to perform, and it 
is likely to continue to exist as an executive body connected with 
the Board in Ameriea(which is an executive body of the Home ChurohO 
(That we advocate is the admission into our esecutive body of some 
Indian brethern whose cooperation and fellowship will be helpful 
and beneficial to the cause in which we are all interested so close¬ 

D. J.Fleming, 

U. S. G. Jones 
J. Harris Orbison, 

This report was ^resented in 1912 and again in 1913 with the follow¬ 
ing additional note- 

ht the Conference of Delegates of our three India missions held in 
Allahabad on the ocassion od Dr, /(hite's visit, certain resolutions 
were passed which corroborated most of the points set forth in this 
report, but a somehhat different scheme for enlisting the cooperat¬ 
ion of the Indian Com;:.unlty was approved. That scheme has been re - 
ferred to the Missions for consideration. 


CABLE address: 
..inculcate,” new YORK 
FoHEiGN Missions Code 
A. B. C. Code, 4th Edition 


the board of Foreign Missions 


Presbyterian Church in the U.s.A. 
166 Fifth avenue 

Madison Square Branch 

P. O. BOX No. 2 


I’ocflPi'hei* :'>rd, 19 iX!. 

f trust tSwt yow will not ihnt I tm Intrusive or roqwstinc 
too raioh Sr r ysrtto to aife your Jv>lp In oonn«>l,lon with b»»c- nlsolorwoy 
lectiavio which 1 an to f;!va in rfcotlanfl, in 1910. 

ANOtt;.: otJtor mihjeoto, 1 want to f'i*ftl with the whole truest ion 
of the rcl.--.tlon of CJirlstlanity to the roltgious .i.mvlotionn of Uio 
CHrlntion poojile anorift ahon li, seo>3 to gain »ovwl(>Hty, ami of ti® l>o8t 
mothotiB of oBtahllflhlne: ChrlotlaJilty an on Itirtlj^enoufi iwvror. 

You i<not-. hOi» fitch has boon onl.d In recent j^nro ref;«ir<ltn{; the rlfjht at- 
tltwSo which proaohoTB .-wd teachoro of Ciu-istinnity siiould W-co tov,4u-d 
other rollgioia!. Yhe point which I want to dlaouss is, whether, hs ti 
KBitter of fact, real rrofjrenB is ! dwolllnff too Pitch on points 
tn cotTionj wifetiier >■ fp-oat deal of this 0‘;iMi»atnlty is not aijpnrent. ratlMW 
thtui renX, aiut wliether rot-tl rollftioito profjvss^^ Is no^- pwide by a priJceas 
of triuwiJwnt absorption, rtthor t>;m by a x»*'‘008» or reciprocal adapl*-- 
tlon. I was InterestoA In tho foUowlnrr jarac'Pai*' in the preface of a 
verj' ontertstninfT b.>oJc, which recontlj- ap;«aro<S, entitlod, ”?tve Years 
in a j-ierslan ''own,’' a bovojc written bj' Saplor ‘Ulooln, n ntssl emry of 
t'-e church iftestonaiy society. Ho oay*( 

"it wtii, i>DrhftpB, bo felt bj' Btwie t)>at more <nvf)it to bo wnde 
of tlio points in cft-nnn between Islam and Christianity. The is 
t>*t wlisn jofople come to tho miealonarj- they do not. »®nl to find fvp*o^ 
.n^nt, but tUsnereorinnt, .mri consequently tlw Pilselnnary (jets to thin>: 
not 80 ^Ml^h of what th^. vnow .as of what they do not Vnow. So a mission¬ 
ary writer is, perhaps, incllnod t-o pasr over nmtp. ooitwn rwlnts, 
whatever rolisrlon ho Is wrltlnc abotit. fn tiw case of rslcn there are 
really not many to note, and in suppiirt of thin statement J nay rolnto a 
st.iry t-ild by an officer of Indian troops, ine daj' a iVOuvs.iedan in t 5 >e 
oo-trse of conversation, said to hint ' f course, ;-'«hlb, ;f.iwr rellijion 



amt mu’s «ro vMy nr>ar^ther. Imir Christ is <Wo "f «vu* iirorJiots.* 
XrlsJKi ropUofi, <to ymt m«n< ')t omrao, ciu-tst is ono nr 7 >Ha* ' 

pro£) 3 »t.», 1 »tt to Its Hi? Is iswro than a uropSwtt K« is iho ’’<« of ooKi 
an<t the oattem of onr lives. /toslcioB, 'iiers is ht-^istly a slncle vrae- 
ttoal jwlnt where ;^hw>»e<t'oilesi I'lwi Christ icinity are not at Ismw.* 

?}® pi«n InOkefl np »<n<t said! '-tahfb, you hsvo rofi<t. the >vr«n, i«tt 
hAV»'m*.''! your Blhls. I always isOco that roP»>r 5 c to O.rlstiww! I niwSo 
It to n oRtipo the ot.iujir Boy, wA tiioy almost alwnys stiy, ’Vor;^ tmo, 
hfis pj frrsat Aonl in cotion with i'.hrletli!Otilt.y.* "ell, 
SaJ'lh, when they say thiit i icnov/ that they have not resA t)«t jwin saA 
tJiey have not. reoA th(«tr Bihles.*’' 

c.everftl years ftpo, tyoreesor t-arnooh was cjantmi tvs toKinK sn 
ovtot store cnort’otlo -'"ivd oJcolusivo position in ojienlncr the eotahllsiment 
of a C'.halr a'. :}fa>ltn for Wte st'x^ of contuvratlve follKlon, and in Ao- 
olarinc M self «8 onvieoA to the stiwiy, >ie Kf>ve those rot-sons, as ro- 

"(1) Tivrrc *0 only one rellKlon, »‘hleh ms revealeA ooA. 
■•SflitiPS'ieAani «n, onfivianleri, -hiAiasn, n.j-aliiWitsn, •nA other »o-oalleA 
rollfrlons are the invention of «!«. '"ne has cone Aown fi*on i-eav«*ij t!e 
olheiy M** of the eoriJ-, eart.iay. >10 is Alvtne reveltatlw iFm the 
oroatoj* of t)iu tmlveroo, 'tie <rhor« are morel liiilosoihy. (") The 
theolorti<jitl Aop.'irtKk'nt. of tie MniwrBlty was establldioA hy tiw , 70 vo«w- 
wnt to ti*ain mmi for the ministry. '1® Blhle, t5*s lnsj>ire<l ;,orA of 
lod, i.8 the only n« 5 o sari' iaxt-hook. tt oontjtlns enih>{^> of truth and 
vnowleAae to employ stnBento «tirlnfr tlwlr life-tins, i-nd it v»ailA l>e 
hotter for then to stlcv. to it rfth-?r th'-a waste tht-lr strenfft.h •••nd tine 
in the study of oth.-r creoAc which oan bo of no uso -iv-tover to 
(15) If tlsoolvuirionfl jmd stiv’-ents lerw- curiosity to ‘.otoiY ■■hat has 
t««(^t by imi)OBt;»>8 'tfiA inventors of false rellfilons, they can do it In 
connectiV Tfith thr- Aspart.rient of h.ieiory or iMl-osojivi'.’’ 

A oontiv<ry view or.- i-ears a ereat d<w-J. of to-tlayi ru-Msly, tioit 
Ola'lstlnnlty Is onli' one of Hc r-lifflon: of the wwlA, all of thae 
ocriaXly divino in j U«t 't Ivas no rlfrht to clid^ ■ to he the 
ftl.BOluts and ttltlmato roUclonj that that will ho ivwle ui* by '^a.horlntr 
t<^tter the contributions of all the rellelons and «3h»t reliBious 
teiichers, •foB'w ifi'ine the wholo to ho wrouc^a o«t in tl«> cra'inal 

Bplritual and ini.elleotnal evolutim of the race. 

It wjttlii he a veiy eroat helj? to me If yon cottlii find tl e 
f«d vould be wtUlnr: to co tlie tr-ithlo of iu\«w«rl»v. »wh IneuiriGS «» 
this followlnc! 




X. - How ahocilil Chrlifllwitty be prosentoA to non-Christ lim 


2. - Should ths oM*))iasl8 hr l&ld on »ho points wliteh It )ia8 in 
coercion with the non-^'hrlstien religions, or should this b« >'»ds iwoly 
tlio starting point in 'ho effort to Hirow what Christianity alone offers? 

3. - Are Dici supposed points of corramlty l>.>tweon Christianity 
and llis other religions aw msiormis and extonolTo as Is sometimes nui<- 

IMsed? or aro tJiore any fUndimontal dlffer-mces of ppinolplo which loahe 
tlioso points of oontset ajjpftron'. ratluor th^n real? 

4t - ;hftt should he the proper attitude of clirlstlsn proaohors 
And teachers and of oj^f^ised Christianity In .sia to the non-G'orlstian 

6 . - is there a dlfforonce hotrfsen t)io attitude which should bo 
taken tiwrard the religions leaders and toward the individual adherents 
of those religions? 

6. - ts the Christlunlty, not of tlie Citmsh nor of the 'ost, 
hut of the Hew TostanciBt, t>ie final religion for w«? or le it to bo 
modified and snpplcnanteC by contact with the non-Christian rellglnns? 

7. - Are the ncn-Oirlstian religions "religions" or "faiths" 


In the sfiTic soabo in which Uioso words are applied to Christianity? 

<5. - that are tho radical j-jm} essential dlffercnoos botwaon 
Clirlstianlty and the non-Chrl9ll''n religions? 

9. - KOw can i':J*l8tlanity best lay hold on tho personal life 
and on t)io social and national life of tiio non-Christian peoples? 

S/ion with roferenoo to t>>e other ciucstlon, I tfiould llice to 


1. - In introducing Christianity into any non-C’-ristian country, 
should its institutions bs ssl up as independent and national Institu¬ 
tions from tJie beginning? 

f. - If so, what Is wuat 1:y ‘'indopendonoe?*' So we mean both 


flnMJoJ.<0. Mirt eoolon5!«i’-l.oal IndopenAonceV 

a. - If a lihrlstlaa »»ln»lon fl*om Jaian or ImUa were to b« 
est(>}>ItB}ie4 In Ohinai -.'horoln woiilcl ito moUioAfi differ trf>r\ those wi.loh 
hfwvo hean intrsneA hy Chrtatlsn Pileolons froro the 'est In India 

and China? 

4. - '(Itaroin «ro tlm Christ Ian oXarches In <;».i«n wk' itlilna and 
India dosionstratlnc theiaBolves to he s'literlor as rellRlotis fowos to 

the forolfpi arenoloB? 

e. - hi nhat "round can It Iw mlnta!.neA that forelirn <o?!ncIoa 
n^LOuld he withdraivn <Yoi-i districts which no other sfitmclos are sotfelnc 
to evnticollsa? 

6. - In what ror«) can national churches cooperate wlWi onn 
another and lend snslstanco v'*n In each case %'m ohnroh Is entirely 

V. - Slty sltould there ho various denoralnjitlons and not one 

united national. Church In each land? 

And PtBff I ash you help on the further lines of Ine.ulryt 
• 1. - now far has tthrlstlanlty as yat iwlunlly touched the 

life of an;' slatlo land? isredlth Tos-nsend, In sla and itrope,'' 

holds tJiat Asia In praotloallj' Inao'osslhle to new principles, and that 
Cbrlstl^mlty cannot hope to penetrate the life of the non^.hrlstlen world. 

2. - Is tl.ore any such r!«lal chasm hct,woen ast. and oot? 
to not the comm talh. ahmt such a chasm i.ire nmseniie re there not 
„..ny )rlo‘^airi^:arstand each other better and ivve more in e.«mon 
than maui' IrlenfOs and dcoidentals have anon;; tlmnsolvos? 

3. - Ilhnt are tl« niestoiwry motives vdiloh sliould he p-cBsed 
upon the Christian Churolies? 

4. - hat do i-on t.hlrt' of the oonceptlm of ' ti« oviuicollsaw. 
tlon of the world In this iteneratlon? ’ 

3«re .'vix. ryaivoth-y- 


l»at i taow 'ihftt It le roquestluK « fToat 'IwOl to ».e>c you to ^nemr 

ftlth slnooro rogara, I an 

Very fmJitJifully yours 

Kiftraots from Latter of HeT. 3. H. Jordar.. Teharan. Persia, dated Oct. 19. 1909. 

Yon asV.efi ntovit the methods which I employ In dealln,^ with Moslons 
and quoted from my friend Malcolm's hooic. mhat anecdote which you quote from him 
about the servant who remarked to his master that the Koran and Bible are one, etc. 

Is one which I often used while hone to set forth the opinion advanced by ;:alcoln 
with which X fully agree. The average inquirer does not cone to find the points 
In which wo agree, but rather the points In which we differ, for he has found his 
'old religion inadequate to supply his soul's deepest needs and he Is seeking for 
liomethlng which oan sui)i)ly the longings of his spiritual Tiature. 

‘j Often I am asked by an Inquirer In what we differ from Islam 


Jend I reply that we agree in all things with the exception of one prophet and one 

I book. Having tlius stated a general a;;;reement I do not attempt to show in what this 
igreonont consists, neither do I try to set forth the differences as snoh, I use 
no apologetics or argument from Old Testament scriptures, in t)ie beginning, to prove 
that Christ Is the all sufficient savior for men. I try to tell them what Clirlstlanlty 
U and what Christ Is—that Clirlstlanlty Is a life and Oirlst the Life Clver, I try 
to make them see .that Christianity Is the sweetest and loveliest thing that the mind 

of man can Imagine and therefore presximably true—that It completely 8upi>lle8 that for 
which the soul of man hungers. I usuallj' saj' at the beginning, "How let us put aside 
for the moment all question of whethor Christianity Is true or not and lot me tell 
you what Clirlstlanlty Is." X usualljr start with John 1: IK, "To as manj' as received 
him, to them gave he power to become the sons of cod," X explain that Christianity 
begins with a new birth, a change of ^ture and no a change in conduct naturally 
folloivB. X show that In this It differs radically from all other religions which tell 

I us to oam salvation by a righteous life. Christ first gives salvation—a new birth 
that Is the power of God, and by it we oan live as unregenerate man cannot live. Of 
‘ ooursB, this la only a bare outline or rather a bare idea of what « I try to say to 
the man. At the end X say, "Kow If this religion be true. Is It not an ideal religion 



for the needs of raan?" and almost without exception the" will say that it Is. 

Kavln" thus won their hearts it is comparatively an easy task to convlme 

their heads. The Persians are fond of quoting "Aftah amad daleel-e-aftab"_"The 

gunshlno came a proof of the sunshine” i.o. some thlnes need no proof-spiritual 
truths so much appeal to the heart of man that proof is unnecessary. Last Sunday i 
was reading "The ilagnotism of Christ" by Dr. Smith of fidlnburgh and came across this 
passage, which well expresses my idea. He says, "The opposite conception l^as taken 
a powerful hold of very manjr, viz.i—that the spiritual cannot stand alone, cannot 
Bako headv/ay by its own characteristic light and influences, much less is able to 
overpower all opposing forces, by resistless appeal to the whole nature of man." 

"In former generations men labored at an elaborate apologetic by which they hoiked to 
Bako spiritual truth acceptable and authoritative to reason, not knowing that the 
spiritual as such carried its own immediate sunlike evidence, and commanded an as- 
lent, which reason could not create, and which rose from regions of moral and spiritual 
Intuition, when deep called to deep in immediate response." 

SO you will see that I emphaelse neither the agreanente nor the dlsagroe- 
monts, but Christianity and Christ, and their nv/a minds can disoem the disagreements 
with more telling effect than If another had pointed them out to them. As intimated 
above, proofs and apologetics are not neglected, but come in later to establish what 
the heart has already api)rovert. 


rvom a lettoi’ of the Hov. f! 


Dated ITrui'iia, Persia, Septeinber r,4th, 1900. 

In letter that tlw liu-ds /-.avo carried off, I ti-4e<t to oxiJrdoB 
ny ideas on tlie qnestion yoii ask about the siisslonary attitude to o! }ior 
rolicions. It Boons to no that a d.istinotion ouc'h-t to bo nside botv/een the 
attitude to;vards tile individxuEl honlen and towards Islan. If v/e are careful 
to be respectful ;\nd com*toous in the fosmor, wo can be more aniressive in 
tho latter. In order to gain a hearing it is necessai'j' to bo willing to give 
a patient hearing. In tIUs line comes the importance of following h'iontal 
ideas of coiirtosy in tho foms of address and in the manner of referring to 
tho prophet and tI\o jloran. ;ino ought also to bo ciu’eful not to ir^Aign tho 
sincerity or tJio intelligence of tlio lloslera. If tho pi'oper attitude is pre¬ 
served to tho individual, I think tliat one can generally find the v;ay to 
present tlie Gospel freely and fully. 

But this is not tho point, of course. I don't think that I nia 
intolerant, and I do not wont to ninimise the comnon groiuid. But one must 

ho sincere ojid discriminating. Islam as a system I believe to bo an 
obstacle to social progress and also to honest religion. I cannot think 
that it is right for mo to profess any other attitude in religious discussion. 
It mBff not 1)0 necessarjr for me to express ra^ opinion, and it certainly is 
not incumbent on mo to oxpi-ess it in iin offensive v/aj': but in any case I 
cannot honestly profess v/liat I do not believe. ?erh.aps it might bo put in 
tills v)ay. 'fho truth w/iich there is In Islam is not helped to a useful ex¬ 
pression by tho institutions and ordinances of tho "oliarmedan religion; 
while tl'.e error and misroia’esentation of the truth v/hich is contained in tho 
system ohsexu-o the tnitli it contains. So long as this is beliof, real 

attitude is determined, if I am honest to rtr convictions. I think tliat a 
further distinction can be drax'/n between tho truth in Islam and Islam; or 
it is often practically between the truth accepted by the person one is talking 
with and Islam, for Islam is not the only source of religious loiowlodgo nor 
io-o all apparent Iloslons j’onlly such. 

Tlio effort of lior.lems, if tlioy are fi-iondly, is to show- tliat 
the tv/o faiths aro pi'actically identical, and that consequently there is no 
superiority on tlic side of Christiaixity. It Is an advantage, of ooiu'se, to 
find coi’ison ground, and tlio moro common ground one can honestly discover tlie 
hotter, provided tliat one goes bi^'-ond tho coii-ion ground to tliat vihioh is not 
oomon. * In tliis it has so<»iiod to mo better to allow notneroly v,hat the 
individual presents, but all tliat can with siny sort of propi-iety bo claimed 
by Islam; that is. In other words, framing one's ai’gumont so as to meet 
the strongest case that can bo set up by tho .ioslem, whether tliat case is 
actually Resented or not. Kowovor, allov/ing all that can with propriety 
be allo-wod in tho vn'.'r of oemon ground, tlioi-e is alv/ajrs tho opportunity to 
oo on and show hov,- the two faiths differ. I do not believe tliat tliore is a 
single doctrine in which the toachinivs of the two 3-eligions are reallj'- iaonti- 
oal^ In ailnitting identity, the groat danger is that the tnitli of 
Chrlstianitv should bo minimized. Foi- example, forgiveness by free grace is 
fundrosontal to both religions; bijt in Islrm the basis is GoiVs absolute will, 
and in Chrisi.ianlty, it is his justioo and righteousness manifestea 
Atonffiient. To ston at tlio coiinon ground will give the inprosaion that there 
is no tUfforenoo, and that in Cliristianity forgiveness >b an act of God s 
absolute v/ill. one needs also to disc-lminate in tho use of language and 

not to use toims which tnrply what ho does not wish to tonply. The xiselosa- 
nosE, o.nd sanotlnos worse than nselessnoas, of casual conversation on r^’llcioxis 
and moral tonics is in the fact that ahnost inevitably platitudes ;ire indulcod 
in which ^-ive tJio ii'ipression of an o<’;reen!ont, vdiioii is in reality snoclovxs 
and deceptIvo. 

I’erixaps J. nlf;ht illustrative \v!»at I :an tryinj; to say hy a corir- 
versation yostordjiy. 'I' caller was a verj'- friendly :ixllah, a nophov/ of 
Mrsa liusoien ;.clia, the hif; llijtajiid. Ho nvide a peisui'oly call and I found 
tho opportunity to hrinr: xip i.he relation of faith to v/orhs, stating the 
Hot/ -ostanont toacdiinf; and ashlnn him to give thoir belief. He did tids in 
terms t.hat wore intended to show that t.iioro was no practical difference. 

X then asked about the merit attachinf; to pilcrtofvxes, fasting, etc., trying 
to shoiv tlw.t tile doctrine of merit was not in iviireemont wiiii foreiv.cness by 
faith. He defended them imich as a Xioman Catholic would thoir t- nohitigs, 
and I tried to insist on the ossontiiil dlfferonoe botwoen his tjosltion and 
tliat of tho How Testament. .'t' xiurposo from tlio bofiiimine; was to get lum to 
roalizo the difforonco in our beliefs. I don't mention this boceuso there 
v/as anxdhing remarkable in tho conversation, bnt only to illustrato in a con¬ 
crete way what seems to no the proper method. So, xdule ompiiasizlng t>ie fact 
of revelation, I trj' to point ovit that t/ua Biblo nothod of revelation in 
history and in t)>o perfect Jdfe is essentially different and superior to t;io 
Hoslon idoa of a iiook sent doxrn from heaven. In relation to tho finality 
of tJje Christian dispeixsation I tldnk it is important lo contrast the doctrine 
of tho Irananont Spirit witii tlie doctrine of succosaive imams or prophets, 
shOT/inf: tiiat the fojtnor secures the divine pi'esonoe in a real way and the 
latter in an illusor;'' way. By tho v/ay, I a.m afraid x can't spot pantheists, 
of v/hom Persia is 3 upx>oscd to be full, and I find moi-e occasion to insist on 
God's ImiiaJionco than to limit ideas of Kis imianonoe. 

I tiiinic 1 Jiave said onougii to 8}'.ov; tJxe way I look at tho subject, 
and thiit Is vdxa.t you v/ant. I tr:r to keep an open mind to leai-n frm the ."nst, 
and I ii.avo groat hopes that Oi»iontals v/ill some dai' state tmth in nov/ and 
boautiliil waj'S. They have a power of illustra.tionand explanation that is 
vory striking. But I have far loss iiopo of neiv tnitiis. Perliaixs they v/ill 

give a now balance of truth, a nev/ and tnier perspective in some tilings. 

STA';SH3ir.'’ Si TKS nsv. BKBJAJ© ’TSm, 
0? SioK V= nook's '■"•■.rS'.’SD C'.ijlSY 

A vj\A:yUAl\i 0? 5 ^'OKa C AiO OK^ 

GF “K;i Y -.:j:qG.C? 05S.=viA"I-lx At 



1. Hoifr s/'iould Christl^l'.y 1-,■ yr«8(*n*ett tho A*^n-C)irl8tlnn j;>oo»»lo8? 

OirtsMnnlty ahrmlS tio VT^ssnied to ihe non-G>iris’ Ian oootiI^b not, 
Afl Ht flat cou*ratnctlt>n or at dsfianoo to all ^-h^ r»?ll,"7ion9 alroat^y in 
oxistonoe hut as woToiowledfjln" and apyrovin;; all tho f^ood tKat la In •hoi'i. 
/jid that, whllp i'erfeot in Itself, ChristlaiiUy sr>o'j<9 to yorfect all that 
they are tr;'lne to So, to reveal to the® the iiysteries of GOS '"hlch they 
are saelclne after and soothe their hearts. That the ClirlsMan religion 
Is a rell.glon of neroy of the only GoS and of Salvation 1>y Jesna Clirlat 
only; meeting all the social, moral and ajSrltual wnta <md ItovjlngB of 
all ages and climes, healing all "errofna" and giving hold to all the 
groiiin,’;B after '"rwih (md Good, and yea c.od. 

2. Should the emiitaals he laid on the nolnts which H. /.aa In oonnon with 
the non-Giirlatian rellgiona, or should tlUa he made merely the atnrt- 
Ing nolms In t)n efforts to show what Cliriatlanlty alone offers? 

Yhe thinga in oorrion should he made as t)ie starting yoint, tho eri'Jia- 
ala ahould be laid on tho .-leroy of C-od, the Heavenly Father, !Uid salva.- 
tlon from sin by oeaus Christ. Y.t the aiose time, thoug), there ^■J•e many 
oointa In ommon, tlieirs are frajnentary or deficient or even a 
semblance of ' he "ruth and needs to he iiurifled hy t'le fire of the 
Holy Sjilrlt. Yhe etlinlc reltglona ,jid heatlien iJiiloaophiea hc.vo their 
worV. and worth in ‘)ie I'ulldlng of the Yemrle >f God and Christ cones to 
he l'*'8 Headstone, ;'ea Us Comnletlon. 

3. Are the sunyosed I'oin's of coiw'nmlty between Christianity and other 
religions as niuneroua and oxtenalve as la sometimes suiioosod' 'r .are 
there any flmds'mental d'.fference8 of orlnclples which naVre theae 
points of contact aiiparent rather thJJi real? 

The b;)M'X 8 of the aams "ruth Is In, all r'-llglona, Glir'atlan ur 
those that bnae on otl.tos and xhllosonhy. Yiio points of cxifumlty are, 
if any, on tlio moral st'le. out at the f'Oundatlon of all reseijlilanceB, 
there Is this esaentlal difference ‘Viat all etlinlc religions ultimately 
alms for self wherof.s tj.e roitgion of cJirist, like Ciirtst, ultimately 
niiiiB for atoneJjient of self, or better luuianlty, wlt)i God, by Christ. 

4. ;:hat ahould be the jirO'ier attitude of Clirlat Ian pr-eachera and teachers 
of organizetl OlJ'lattanlty in Asia 'O the non-CliTlat Ian rellgionsV 

Yhe proper attitude to tlie non-Christian religions In /.ala should 
he to liavo all ajniiathy with ttiem. Give full eatlniatlon of tlie •.•o*d tlAt 
Is In them; show, if necessary, their wants, defects awl crniptlons, 
duly hon'tr their founders and loaderaj help along, tf possible and ne- 
oesaarj' .and wisely, the pttro oliarlty they do or attempt. 

5. Is there a difference between the altitude which should be taken to- 

wftni Uw r.!ll ;lou« Wrtprii nn>1 i,>w.u*d t}.A tndWlrtiuvl (*d),Aront« nf 

the mn-OirlntLtm rAH.^lonsT 

in *;h» first, TiXuoet t)iA ut.i. itiUiin Blionlci Vie one of mero'’ Knd love 
IKB t(iat of inir -lOrd and to win them to !-lm. fhls shoiiM vie Inu* oc.nst.wit 
atl Itrtde lOi'l d'llj' ni those lioatVien wVio oome Into oontaot wltVi us. But 
In tiedllnf; with a general adherent of a heat/ien religion, wo should I'a more 
In !iio x’''»'’ >' 0 n, 80 to silent, of a teachor. 3lve him the truth end love and 
^raco of Clirlsl, ;we -Jid bIpioIo; and eliOwlng >ilm all along )iOw rnich lots 
the Gosoel Of Glirlst to do with his V>U8" and vrej-rlod life. to a, devout 
adherent or a leader of !,nj' heathen religion, who Is Intelllivent of and 
tem^lous to his religion, ow attitude would he tha.t of an apologist. Ofon 
to him the troaimres of the Josiieli admit tVie treclousnes? of wv,at Is wortlip 
and gO'id In his religion! IVlendlv and magnanlmnuslj' and lutelllgentlj' and 
slncerelv eomr^re the two; lead him to see t)ie superiority of v.e "dtspsl of 
our Slvlne Ohrlst, the ton of God, who !b Good, "ruth, :,lght and ,ove.' To 
not l^t him i.hlnV, to cone to Clirist, lie must cast awiiy everj’ lota of go id 
or i’ruth wlilch God has revealed througli 'laturo or plillosophj' or saj'e, who 
1 b God's prophet j but he Is to iceep tlii* real Good and "ruth hie former lai'i 
has but to add over and aViovo it tl\e full Good and ’rutli itirBCifc'ij! directly 
from God the Son, nay the "rlune c-ort, Glio Is over all, and In all and will" 
be In any one vho wlllln{;ly accepts KlWi 

6. Is the Clirlstlanl'y, not of Church nor of the “ent, but of the the 

final rell.glon for man" 'r Is It 'o lie modified by o m'aot with ihe non- 
CliTlstlan religions? 

"he Chrlellar. religion, xv're and simple, Is one left on earth by 
Christ, I lie Son of God, all In principle and not In any kind of deV>all. ..nd 
yet it Is all xvrfee.t and final ’out Just as an infant la •. perfeot, well- 
formod hujoan V'elng. The Infant iias to take food in material foira, plant 
form or animal food, to convert th,i Baph=' Into the child, to make tiiom part of 
It. 30 has Clirlatlttnity to take In, reform, convert , yea s.aiotil^' all the 
good ountoms, rites, conceptions, morals, arid, doctrines of ail otiier re¬ 
ligions, or or!glnated from t,/....m. hen that whlc> is perfect is come, 
tliat which Is In iiart—Gnov/ledgo of Cod ’.nd ■'rut.h-si'f'.ll lie done away-In the 
gradu.-l process of as- Imllatlon .and perfection. 

7. Are the non-ClirlstIfin religions 'Glell.glons” .or 'fatth'’ In 'lie ssrie sense 
la which these words are applied to Clirletlenity' 

In tlie ..astern countj-les ".aeltglim” reallp' means teaching, and worsl.lp 
is of 1-1 later growth or oor.njptlon or adaptation from t)ie natural or poitvlar 
religious x’raotto'.'s. ”?altVi' in etlnlo religions 's no more •>ian a ilillOBOiili- 
loal Idea and not a statement of facts based on rivine r»volatlon or trust In 
tlio Plvlne. 

8 . iliat are the racial and essential differences betwern Gliristlan and non- 
Clir 1 st, Ian rel Igi ons 

It Is a truth that race and rpllgi-on act and react up-vn ejicli other. To 
speak In general, the groat difference between Giirlst'lanlty sne non-Ghrlsttnn 
roll-Tlons Is tiiat In the one religion and politics arc distinct or rather tVjit 
Christ ianity Is the more pred.wil.nant in the life of the hrIstIan, whereas 
In the other, bra,slnani 3 i’i';.he one Is native, growing, developing, philosophical , 
Ideal yet e(;ually practical, stlmlatln;!, the o'her Inaatlve, statlonar;', too 

pJiUOB'i:'hlcs>.l hn<i i<l<'lo f^mT fibs^rjtoi snii fnlae hr- irfcoHofililo t t,he 
fw8Bll'.*Q<l IiTwb or rell.-Oon wftj- l >9 (jalvinlxod s.t. t-lriBS Vral owio.oi; bo'n con- 
tluuoiis rf'rco roi* h<^Tico coi*nint, 

9. Kow o»n limit,;' >i8s*v In;- hold on IKe oernonal >,n<i on t,h» soolr^l >md 

HK ruitloniil llfA of non-GJ-L^-laUhn ojoi'lce? 

it, Ib Iriportfvnl and 'ir^’ent- to Avim.^ollzo tho v/orld m,' t.o 
tli» nogt. atratoclo r^ln'o ftg contros of mrX, to on.tehvor to re*.,o;. r-.ll clfinBon, 
but to tfikt! V.ol.l of t).p noj-BOnnl Mid nfttional life of h mm-.I.rls* ion motion, 
ChrlstUinlt;' oho.iiW aa;' tto "rontost ocjre ;-.nd attention to the C/irlstiur and 
ail-rounded and. hl'vltl" thoronth odnoation to the younf; and. rU'n. -eneratlona; 
sal before thcfi the hleh ‘'hrlstlan Ideals, let them owm into clone contact 
or relal.-ion with the beet 'ihrlotlan lives, /md what Is more liofiortant In to 
seek es;v30lall7 to thoroit-M.^ Oir! atlanizo the sons and dai^htere of -hrlotlnn 
oonvertB In the nlsslonim;' schools (for 3r. •rlfflth .'oim tes well said that 
we cannot ."Ot an out-and-out Christ Ian un’11 th'- second or third penerfitIon). 
Hake the CJirlstlan jo-ithB symoathlse with the nlaalonaries, s/.'iw lho,m tiuit 
holy 'Ilnlstry is tlie hlftbest, noblest and most urjjent vooat.lnn, woid.h;' of the 
moot laudable amb,ltlon of anj' woll-te.iented and well-educated V'.iuth at such 
a time, S In such a owmtr;' when and wh^-ro the rUjjhteous Cun Is dawtiin;;. The 
educational work of the Christian missions mn;' be sltw but would, steadily rrow 
to be ultimate means to revolutionise the whole land fir Good. 

ri. 1. In Introducln: Chrletlantt? Into any non-Ciirtstlan oountr;’ sbould Its In¬ 
stitution be set u;> as Independent end national Inst buttons . j-om the be- 

In euoh matte'’8, 11 seni'in ti, ne, wg )iad better folloy, ';t. '.aul. bet 
ralsfilonM-les work at erw etratojric points and estalillsJi a Churc!!. ,et not 
the Id-a of deoendenoe or indejiendonoe once bo jut into tlie minds of tl.e con¬ 
verts, or from w)ilo>'. nation the mission oomes, be broujtiit to enj, ;ironlnenoe. 

Let tiie fact t./mt t.>,e ..3iurc>i Is of the nlace or of tiie nation be made -lowing 
In the minds of the c.vj'lstian converts, -hke the Chris .Ians of one centre 
rosfo/islble (to act with forelcn mlsslotiarles lo' and boiilnd i./.em) on the 
soroadln;'; of l.he C-osiiel In tii,: surroundtnj; olnoes. Let tiie rollflon O'JSt them 
somethlnf; (after oonv-rslon) b'. it money or labor. Gake leai'ers of the worthy 
ones and entntst certain roeoonslbliltles of ■;i,v»rniM.rnt, to tl.ei'i. ..t ’he n.'jao 
time keen toe "iiUi'io .ihuroii” (or fon Ibly other d.hitro.h.-s) In close touch with 
this Church but onl;' a.s Church with .'huroh so that he missl onar f s -ould not 
be sometidnc like meteors shot out from heaven lo t)i>. converts, .'.ad yet .after 
all Ills Cliurcis must stand .tlrmly on real CiJlstlans ao.i not on baytlzed 
hsatlien, tioit In whoso hearts ?.av not b.^AU converted to Christ. Toe growth 
and. soreadint; of a banj'an tree will best tsiujl. us iiow a Churc). should be oa- 
tabllsliert. All th" trunks of the same cluster stand quite inde;' udentl;' luid 
;'..l connected at t?.'* top and below. I'hus M.s Cl.urciies, while ae;'.arst» flnan- 
ol'illy (Uid ecclesiastically, by natural j 7 ro^■tll, for oonv-nlenoc sake, are a 
composite whole, boinn vitally one In Spirit and on th“ foundation of 
Christ. In Introducing; Chrlslianlt;' lo .my non-chrlst'an coiuitry, let such 
ideas be kept In prominent view. 

". If so, what Is meant by ’■Independence’ ? Do we maan! and ooclsslas- 
tloal lndo;“-ndenoo? 

Indei^'ndf-noe would mean '■ntlro ftnanol-.l self-support and eooleslastl- 



06 l w>ir-f'Ove;'n,jojii.; wi<? inly i.'nut. 

C'lrini lr,n mtoflon On-i jtiritin n.r tndiH wore to bn sot, „n tn China 
whor..ln wnuir. i^-nothoAs -Ufrer tJ.ono of whtc): ha- h^.n 

J.rlHtii.n .-.IsalonB fron (.ho "oBt In iiajan ami Cmila and vihinaT 

i'hero would l.e lit'I,, or no laut roBort »o the national oower of 
the ii.lBFlomj-iAB nat I.-.hb, vd.Bther directly or Indlrootly; volmitarllTr .,r 
Involunltu-Uy. '^lare would he )«iore of (he sendlmt of wen to the l.owel.and 
of -he wl a»lonJirl‘*B io loam of ciurtB*-lanidy In ^leolO£«^ and in life, "hus 
lrai«lant In." of the Ghttroli would 1>e a quicker yrocoBs. 

4. ,.horoln are the Oirlstlan Churoliea In dH;ia.n, and (ndla and China der.on- 
Btratlnjt tho.nselveo io he su’ierlor as roll."?.mis forces" 

super lor as rolls? ous rorces as shown In 'lielr nuhllme 
Ideals, and hy the zeal of the fnro?."n and native nreachers and O/irl.sllans, 
in the lives they ) convorl.od; td-e w.ay tn which the wUslonivTles oatlent- 
ly plant and nmirlsh ilie Churnhosa trj'tns to nako 'hnn tndeonnd-r.t; *hf. 
hl"K standards of woral.ity they uriliold: the Influence t),ey exert for sond 
upon t)ielr own Chrls'dann and mitside .fri-nds, uimn social reforms, atid 
upon the nation at lar:r« hy the mmitii, iJie iign and above all, the lives of 
the miss?onnrluB. 

fj. Tn what ground can It he i ialntalnod the forelsn ascncles sl.ould ho with¬ 
drawn from districts which no oTdior ec;enoles are seeking to evamp»llzo? 

.If the oonn^ry Is yet )<eathen, i;ho only .^rmind would T.e when the 
district Is too antl-forelgn or too antl-CTirlst-lan. 

6. £n what form can na'.lonal "hurches oooper-de with one an>t.)ier and lend 
assistances wl.^n in each case i-Tie church Is entirely 

•?hroiv"h .re')reBentatl’'e8 or delegates. '.iTie cooperations s.hmild hs 
agreed to hy authorities of T.ot.h parties (Churches). The assistanoB sh-nild 
he invited ir requested or woTcoMod T.y authorities of tv, CTairoh In noed w 

7. "ly B/iOuld th'-re (ho) various denotolnallons and not one united Church In 
oaoTi landV 

it Is a great curse and shar.e to iuivo t/ie ChuroTi of God so rnlncnd 
u; even within a nation, wit>i all the strifes and stmvfglee and blttemoss tJiafc 
History and ^..^erlence present to us .and vUh the loss of the possible rapid 
pro.groBS and Infinite benefits when t)io Cliurch Is one and undivided. Kow inuoh 
stron.';er would It appear to the heathen who May he either orltloal .or antagon¬ 
istic when she Is united' But wo mst rem-nher there are divisions '.ml soots 
with their 3tr’i;“:leB In other religions, as well. Chrlstlanl'.y Is such a groot 
religion of the Grand '.'rut)\. To T'o all taken and expresset! In one single ivay 
would he somethin." next- to Imposs lliillty. hwisn minds are limited. >Tno y 
tyiie of liumanlty or i.iuui of mind can oiily take one for.-: to express ono 
Grand Truth In seme of Its astieol.s. /r.othor another. Glie end 
strife indicate how It clln,gs ?o Its faith, how strongly It upholds Hie ono 
as^iect of that “ruth, wliile ;-.ckn owl edging the ofner asrieots or other foros of 
exiiressln." that same Truth, henonlnationlsi'i shows how varlegat;ed forms the 
one Truth may assume fo suit tJie different sTiades of lives, cJiaraoters and 
porsonalltlsB. Tienomlnat ion list, however, does not ooinoide always with nn- 

tlomiUBfi. j; 0 iia~iltuitUml,si’i, is l.ut Indloittlon nf )))\« on 

tho ;wrt of I'lRn for >,)»<» fuli. rohllzi^llon of '.he "'ruth rsveol^c* hw i,he "Ord 
Xnoftrmito /'li-ieelf. 'fJ:Q fliiHA ou'ca-'iet, , hoile^e, would ho ojtroonon', *™ot/ 

; '<now !n Tksr'i I"''- '■)ien X know oven rii also •, too known.'' 3ut In the 

"now" lot UB Book unit;- of Boirlt hnd not nnlfori'iit;' in diversity, wtlh nil 

1. K'Jw f!ir Jias ohrlutlanlty as yet ..lOtually touched 'iie life of roiy .'glatlc 
land. Mr. ilereiUih '.'ov.nnond, In "..sla and Europe'', holds that ,'sla Is 
iractlcally Inaocesslhle to new principles, and tliat Cl rlstlsnlty cannot 
hope to lienotrate the life of the non-t'hrtstInn orld. 

From what I do >now of china, t'.u.t the Chinese life la greatly 
touched hy C-hrlstlanl'y directly .‘ind indirectly. ’iThe deolslv.' actions of 
the ”<itlon In the Bnp;'r?s'lon of yylun snokinf; and. of .ro .thlndlng of women tire 
directly and xism ftlnost entirely through 'hrlstlan efforts. . puhlio sentl- 
in.?nt lias Ion.-; hoen proiuired to render IKe two actions ^)OB^Il•lo. .,ntl-opIun 
movOTO'nt Is as ■'>ld. ivs the rotostan' nleslons nr tlie opium 'rwle itself. 

Xliouj'h tl.ero had heraii .'.ntl-foithlndlni; edicts since tiio pr-sent i'yn.aaty, 
lirs. Little's endeavors since shout 1800, really the first iliat were 
proved effoo*Ive-at first emon;" the Christians and then foll.vwod by non- 
Chrlstlan women. I3iere are non-Chrlstlana, men and w'nen.tli'vt form societies 
to flnht tills evil cuetom. . t X'resont the 'natural foot ' 'nas tiecome irc- 
valent and faslilonable. ■hir filirlstlan "ahbath tins been adopted es hnllds-yn 
all over tlie Jaxilre. It be^nn to be printed on Chinese Calen'lars alonjj 
with other eui'erstlti ons about forte, n years a.x®* hospitals and other 
otii-jrltable works jin'"" been much appraolEted find followed. -.11 that is con¬ 
nected with Id'll worship ts decidedly declining. L Taoist xirlost told me 
himself of the decaying ''S' ~aolsii. 'lost of 'he mod'>rn reforms were begun 
by missionaries by l-helr InstU.utio, their bOvOks or ttiriwvgti 8cholra*s who got 
Into some connection wl'li ti^n, thmvgh they becfu'i? widespread or generally 
desired when China Is wait ned by her forel':^ '»rs and her foreign students 
returned. 'Jhe galaanijatlim of the scholastic (or hlgaor) biidehlsm by 
those reformers, t! e tiiw and Increasod Cinfioian worship', the elevation of 
Coiif.iolus to a de.'.ree almost eqwl to the Chinese repard .if heaven, while 
th-re are other ou'iscs for i are due to a gi'd extent, to a reaction 
against the progrcsslvo 0'..''i8tlariity. 

2. is there (uiy such raol'.l ciiasT' hetween Cast and esf? Is not the cuTion 
* talk about s'loh a ohas'i p'ure non-sense? 're there n’t many irlentals and 

- occidentals wlio iuia.?r6tfu.d. each othtr and more In ofV'mon than many 
Irlentals and ooIdenta.I.B have among t/iemBalves? 

fes, tkero ’s a naturjOi eliasm between orientals and 'c.cldentals In 
the ways of llvln*-;; In the ways of thlnkln;;i but. It Is not at all an Im¬ 
passable one, Inposslble to be healed up by constant Inlercormunloatlon. 

For Plan Is ; spiritual and ethical belnt;.l?lien 'he liearts .'ire rt.ght, the ottt- 
ward thln;i8 matters nothing. 'Il'.ere are oases of thg greatest fi*l»nd8hlp be¬ 
tween ooidentals nd '.rlen'als. ..nd It S'.rpiS to me the suc'ess .of the nls- 
slonar;'' -work Is in -ilrect piroportlon to the degree of i.iie mutual understand¬ 
ing and Bplrltnal relation between the foreign and native workers. 

3. "hat are 'lie missionary motives which sliould he pressed upon the Christian 

- 6 - 

Jha Ohr utlftn Ch\trch«>e sIiomIiJ tt fcs iliolr Rr«n< duty <u«i yrSvlleco 

to anrnwd tils C-Osi'^'l ‘>f Christ, to win t]-,e myriads to Kim, for tho lowe of 
Sod and of Dutn as well as to hotter the lives of Individuals o-nd of nations, 
to hrlnjf ahout the wldost mtual uncierstanrtljv; and so iieaoa to all nations. 

4. hut do y.iu think of the oonoeotlon or tho evaii-ellzatlon of the world In 
tills Senaratlon"? 

It Is a laudahle wihltlon for any Oiurch or Individual. K<ivr and 
not a moment later Is tlie time, 'fhe syirlt of ijie CJiurcli la onoufiili, the 
world ts readi' and lias been aocesslhle to the Sos'iel, itMiy, r.any .an t-.venne 
has hecn oyened. .iut let It he kefit In mind there 's no roy.U, ritad to 
fierf'.'Otlon. ;e are doing a grand tiling on a iiige soals and It means 
exlenelve time and labor and yrfiyer. It has t.vo?n clrlstlanity two thous¬ 
ands yesj's to hrlng “ho v.orld to the rresont situation. Sod only icnovs 
how many tone and iiundreds of generations to thoroitehiy bring Ills yrinol- 
pl»s of Hlehto'utsnesp, “'ruth, and .tnve to the hum-ji heart, ’.oiwevor. It is 
^.rs, In this (y^neration, ho enjoy In being one of the won-, tender fibres 
In tho hug- oablc of Christ to bring this world to Sod. 

il2i A 

By :Jr8 . Joseph V.llson Coctoan . 
former Se cret ary for India of the ffoman's Bosird of 
Forelfgi .'liesIons of 'hlladelphia . 

Urs. Cochran (nee Helen V- Scudder) as the daughter 
of mlosionary parents and was born in Southern India. 
She vas a grandOdaughtcr of the veteran missionary, 

Sr. John Scudder. Hrs. Cochran had made a close study 
of the land of her birth and this paper her last 
contribution to the subject. 



i great continent protected fro:a its enemies by v.ide oceans on throe 
Bides, on the south by lofty mountains , stretohinc like a giant cluiln against 
invaders, possessed of all natural advantages, mines of gold, and silver and 
previous stones, sweet smelling and valuable T.'oods, rare fruits, fertile soil, 
v/ith a population of hundreds of millions, a history dating back to the ancients— 
why should India nf ed an awakoningi 

It is difficult for the wostorn mind to appreciate present day condi¬ 
tions in India. Patriotism, Y.hioh ocraee from a sense of national unity and of a 
great corrtr.on inheritance,- and conmon traditions derived from a single source, 
are the western birthri^t. As a vhole, we of imerioa seem a single race. V.o 
spook practically a single language in v;hich is printed and distributed ever 
year billions of pages, shaping the thoughts of millions to the same ideas. Our 
systems of transportation end coramunioation have at once liberated us and bound 
us together, Y.eaving together more closely domestic, social, intolleotual, politi¬ 
cal and religious interests of tho most oxtrorao nootions of our country* Our 
. pplioation of the rooults of modern eci noo to the development of our groat 
natural resources has produced gro:it wealth, so that progress in society, govern¬ 
ment and cliuroh is a natural and norms 1 thing* 

India presents a great contrast. Tho population of the United btatos 
and Canada combined is less than one-third that of India* Instead of one langusg 

being spoken, 105 languages are listed. Consider hov our > roblcms would be 

oompllCEted if mrexf state had a different vnmooulnt-; what a bar vould be placed 
on coBmeroe and Intolleotual interchange. But even if India had a single 
language, her enormous illiteracy would check the influenoee that have so unified 
905 .'. of the male population .'.nd over 995' of the female is illiterate. 


- 2 - 


>Srou the beet of the raooe and Inngnages of India have br ught the 
peopls ho such heritage of custome and ideals ob descended to the American set¬ 
tlers and fr III them to ue. V;e have develored the ideal of individual liberty. 

The individual is permitted to differ from others, to e ter into nei social cob- 
blnations and to rise in the social scale. This ideal car les with it the rights 
of women and children to personal development and education, tlie separation of 
Church and State. In India none of these separations hove taken place. The 
family, and not the individual, is the social unit. The individual is not free 
to differ from his nolfdibors or his ancostors. Kvery influonoo conspires to keep 
him at the social lev-l in which ho was born. Custom in neither to be discussed 
nor amended, the inherited srjirlt of government is patriarchal and despotic, and 
ooncorvatism has becono a passion. ' he great social institution which oKproesoB 
all this iirmovable o ntrol is caste. It may be defined in Hr. Eddy's words, as 
a collection of families holding eoraraon title or name, claiming descent from a 
common ancestor, and unified into a single community by a tradition of fixed 
rules and tustoms. They are separated from other castes by the prohibitions of 
intor-:r.arrlago, .eating together or contact of any blind. In all, there are C37e 
principal castes and tribes, but if all the lower castes wore included there 
v/ould be probably a hundred thousand castes in India no two of which may inter¬ 
marry. I man's canto is his destiny. .ill lndel^endenoe is crushed. If caste 
rules arc broken or defied, the whole community boycott, and, if necessary, 
ostracize the mun. No one v ill ork for him, no one will sell to him, no one 
will help him, i7o oennot realize the problem presented to mission work by this 
system vihlch forbids any man to ehango his religion, to imi'rovc his condition, or 
to rise in the so<ial scale, and which bnyeoatta boycotts ovsiy convert. 

Caste is the one great problem 'n Indio to-da.-. It is this whi-h makea 
India such a difficult mission field. It is this which holds back the high-coEto 
students in the colleges and the poor pariah in the villages from erabrnoing 

Christianity* It haa mada honos.t raamial labor contemptihlo* and retarded pro¬ 
gress. It has brought on physical degeneracy by confining marriage -..ithin narrov^ 
oirclee. It lias suppressed individuality aid caused the degradation of tho 
masses. It is the over present problan ■. hich meets tho nissionaiy in every Hindu 
village he enters and tho remnant of caste prejudice vhich baffles him in Christiai 

Lack of information and travel presents also a physical barrier to the 
rap.d diffusion of ideas. Tho bulk of th ■ Indian people live avay from India's 

raoagro railroad system, and are without newspapers, books or schools. The Hindu 
has little of the migratory instinct, and all his prejudices tend to keep him at 
home, Poverty ; Iso adds its uota. .1 da:/ laborer receives less than ton o nts 
a day. Tho average income per capita is eight dollars a year. Vorty milliona, 
who have had only one meal or at moat two scanty meals during the day, lie fiov/n 
hungry every nifijit upon a mud floor. Tho lack of manufactures, the dependence 
of tho population upon agriculturn vhon tho monsoon so frequently falls, the 
ovorcrenvding of population together . ith poor methods of agriculture, the preva¬ 
lence of debt and tying up of money 4n jewels, naturally are the cause of this 
poverty, Kecurring famines add th>ir horrors to the suffering people. 

:'reBent day conditions in India . ere inadequately pictured without a 

fev. significant viords in regard to th&^oligions of India. India has over been 

the iiorao of religions v.herc tho v/orlU's groat faiths are on trial, and >horo 

finally only the fittest can survive. 

Head extract from introduo. to religioBs . 

of every 10(j j/ersons in India 

71 are Hindus 
21 " Mohammedans 
3 " Suddhlsts 
1 Christian 

There are also Jovjs, ■"arsoos and .utmists. Buddhins arose as a prot- 
ostant reform movemont within. Hinduism provallod in India from 500 3.C. to 

- 4 - 


500 A.l). then rerisheU in the land of its birth. Apart from districts border¬ 
ing on tho Himlayas and Burma, it has ceased to exist in India. The lIohaiMie.;- 
no number over 60,000,000. Though formerly ruling over the bulk of India the;.- 
have lost their iiolitical i roininonco, end have Aeen much b1o\ or than tho Iljlndus 
to cultivate v/estern learning. 

1. Tho religious future of India lies between Christianity end Hinduism, 

Hinduism constitutes porlians h greatest mixture of any religion on the face of 
tho earth. It derives from many sources. Its animistic element covers tho 
belief in a life which aniimites.all nature. ICarth, air and v<-ator are p-eoples 
with spirits which are mostly malicious and w.hich must be propitiated as the 
hi£^er Gods do not protect against them. V.hater in na-ture seems unusual is set 
dov.-n to the possession of sp-irit power, and is worshipped - stones of unus :al 
size or grotestgie form or position, things inonimato gifted with iupsterious mo¬ 
tions such as trees and rivers; ani-mis v/'nich are feared or are odd or useful, 
as snakes, monkeys and co. s; dead persons who wore strong or notorious in life 
or who died in a stnsBge way. All these things arouse in tho comraon man a feel¬ 
ing of mysterious awe. 

2. Tho realistic element of Hinduism includes sacrifice to which the greott. 
est i portancG is attached. It must be offered with an elaborate ritual the 
virtue of which is destroyed by a single slip. ’"his ritu; 1 covers every part of 
life. The individual is helpless. 3very neighbor watches to see that ho walks 
the narrow path. V/hat ho shall oat and drink, -what he shall wear and how it 
Bliall bo -.-■orn; with whom ho shall consort, whom he marry; ..hat he shall work at 
and where he shall live - he is chained to a system from which ho is po erlesa to 


. The third liyatam and highest of Hinduism is the speculative element. 

The earliest religion of tho irgans is handed down to us in is sacred 
writings, tho Vedas, colleotionr of liymns to -. hich were afterv/ards added legal 
and apeoulativo treatises/ it was a worship of gods rarst of hom ere poraonlfied 


forces of nature. Finally, acute thinkers came to c noelvo of a sinele force tha^ 
lay back of nil the universe of vhioh the individual deities \ 7 ere only mani¬ 
festations. All good is God and so is all evil, for God is iraiieraonsl and is 
•..ithout quality. 3y i morality men are only boooninc lartokera of the divine 
nature. Of the Jiindu sacred trinity not one has an untarnished moral record. 

It lo the story of the senuality and impurity of their Gods as recorded in 
their sacred books, v.hioh is pollutinc the imagination of childhood and de¬ 
basing the manhood of India to-day. The temple prostitution in the name of re¬ 
ligion, and the sensualism of Krishna 77orahlp imvo poisoned the verty springs 
of life for multltu es. Dishonesty and deceit are coiimon in India, not be- 
caime of the nature of the people v.ho are naturally more religious than wo are, 
but because of the fundamental lack of Hinduism to supply moral motive and 

The infusion of Christian principles into the minds of educated 
Indians is powerful especially the Christian ideas of God's fatherhood snd 
man’s brotherhood, and the duty of morality, and social service, all of Which 
thoim own religion lacks. 

iniiia Although the groat bulk of the population is 


quite unconscious of the dawn of a new era, India is awak¬ 
ening. lore than ever before in its history there is a ferment of new thoxight. 
The movement is at once political, industrial, social, intellectual and re¬ 
ligious. Politically there is gradually taking shape a growIng national 
movement, the political aspirations of the people"finding expression in their 
Motional Congress, an unofficial, self-appointed Duma whore the political 
leaders meet to discuss national, problems and present ftheir grievances to the 
government. Ths industrial movements to stimulate national production and 
develop their O'vn industries have cane to stay. students are sent to Japan 
and Puroi’O to study.manufactures, and the secret of Japan’s success, .imerlooh 


- 6 - 

prospority and British poiver. Ilome-nnde articles nro be Innlne to drowd out 

foreign goods; India's bsnIcSf stoanship and conmorclal coinpaniee are springing 

up in the cities* i'ocisl refornis are demanded and soclel service in a nev/ 

ideal ■ oosossing tho mind of young India. The true patriot is beginning to 

shov.' his love for his country '-.y fighting amine, poverty, ignorance and 

disease. Young Indi.' is beginning to strike at the root of tho social system 

of oaste and to see hov hopelessly divided India Is under its sway. it a 

recon dinner in Iladras, in tho name of the nov national unity, thirty Brahmins, 


thirty Christians and thirty aoham men of high ond low oasto sat down to cxet 
togethor and no man dared to put these out of caste. Yhere is nov a growing 
sontimont against early marriage and the prohibition of Hindu ttldov; remarrloge. 
Feaale education, so long opposed is n07 being ndvotsated. YTestem education 
which was looked upon with suspicion is nov eagerly sought. One has only to 
faoo a bright, restless audience of Indian students to realise th^ are thor¬ 
oughly awake. I^ch practloo of Hinduism must no' come boforo the bar of 
reason and must approve itself as good for man or else it must go, 

Ihere is a oro'd t -day in India whioh calls itsOls Nationalism. 

It is not a more political program, b t a religion, for all who follov; it v.lll 
liavo to life and suffer. Christian ideas are being importe into the Hindu 
religion. God is spoken of nw as'Tather". Christian morality and phras¬ 
eology arc permeating the minds of educated Indi;ns to-day. 


iVestcm civilization and ideals have taken from India th» old-- oMd 
view with its impossible science and philosophy, history and religion. o 
have larrely demolished wh>jt they had. I'o -e not owe them something bettor 
in IVB place? .ire -..e to lead thorn to agnistocism and materialism, or satisfy 
tho hunger we have created? Yhe British government with religious neutrality 
and eeoular od.ioat on confessedly cannot answer to tho moral and spiritual 
noods of the people. nly God himself as Father can fill the longing hearts 
of hia oliildron and only v.o who know him oon nuike Him knew-n. 

- 7 - 


The Chrlstiiin fihurch io the key to the -.vholo poaition in Inaia. We 

have In India to-day a total >otoptant force of 4,614 misEionaries and a rot- 

eatant thrlstlan oomraunlty of 1,472,448. The problems v.hich confront the 0 

Indian Church and the misslona!-/ are many and rerplexing. The ciuoatlon of self 

l^overnmcnt is a delicate one. Ao the v-ork proceedr the foreign contingent 

vlll gradually decrease an<f the Indian menbers increase in number. The Indians 

arc thus being gradua ly trained both in self-support and in solf^covemmont. 

The question of Christian unity io being solved in some parts of the 

field. In Couthorn India the Presbyterian, ongregatlonal and jiutoh F.eformed 

Christians from the missions of .\merica, Kngland and Lcotland have been united 

into the United Ciiurch of Southern India with 150,0CO members, posoossing a 

conmon crcod and a common poclcsiestioal government, 

nor- is the Church to reach over this vast continent •. 1th its 

716,577 tO'.ns? Wo have first the station missionary with his corps of vorkers, 

his schools, churches and curing vork. Wo Iv^ve also the great eduo-tionol 

arm of the service vith thirty-seven mission colleges, 676 high oohools and 

11,506 primary schools. Instructing in all nearly lialf a milluon pupils. 


There is the industrial department lifting the boys from their helpless, hand- 
to-mouth method of cncistenoe to bo useful arteslans and to learn the trades 
heretofore monoj'Ollsed by the hi^cr castes. There is the litoraty work, the 
flooding of India from our Christian presses vlth Bibles and tr-sots. 

Our 150 mission hospitals .end 615 dispensaries have broken down the 
prejudice and softened the hearts of tho .multitudos for the entrance of the 
',,ord of Truth. Beside all tllis there is the evangelistic vork, as a kind of 
flying column to wm* reooh the outlying multitudes and carry widely over the 
land the herald of the gospel. There is need of an Imme late advance dll 
over India to reap where tho fields .are white. The Bishop of 'Indras states 
that In the Tehlgn oountr' there are two million people who desire Christian 
instruction, but cannot be rcaoho! for lack of funds. In the United 'rov- 



- 8 - 

inces more thnn 100,000 are vaitlng to bo received Into the GJJrietlan corammlty. 

"il sent you to reap". (Bishop i'hobum) Hothing in all modem history 
nothing since the day of ''enteoost had been equal to the present opportunity 
In western India there are thirt;/ districts containing over 60,0^0 people each 
v/ithout a single Christian or worker. In Belir.r vith its 21,000,000 uito 
half the province has never even hoard the sound of the gospel. One minister 
for Virginia, Minnesota or Ontario seems incredible yet in all India over 
one hundred million or one-third of population lie outside the scope of Christian 
effort by all esisting ogenoios, Ihoso could bo reached in our ov.n day if 

we were awake to the full po er of the gospel and the condition of those people. 

"Lovest thou mo evou^ to give thyself? Lovest thou me enough to 
give thy substance? "1 knov/," writes Mr. Eddy, of one friend of mine, vho ' 
during the lest twenty years had invested 5100,000 in India, V.Tist is there to 
shov; for it? In that district there are 60,000 souls vho have beon gathered 
out of darkness and degradation, Idolotiy and devil v.orship into Christian 
churohos and schools through the gifts and prayers of this one man. 1 know 
of one poor girl ’..ho has worked ns a stonogropher for years in a largo city, 
who saved and sent her money supporting natlbe orkers at JSO. each a year. 

There is a conimimity in northern India wliere there are more than a thousand 
souls that beon brought to Christ through the native workers supported 
by this one frail girl. .vS 1 went tlirough the .imerloan college I found liun- 
dre is of young men and women turned back from their life purpose and forbidden 
by Christian parents. Wo must back for ourselves the missionar 5 ' heroism 
of the errly oenttirlos. 

Lovest thou mo enough to give thy service?" Finis. .11 cannot 
go, all canno t givo large suns, but each has a life to live and a si ti. e to 
serve. V.hat could o all accomplish if in our church wo were on fire for 
misBions. I have seen one little vhlto vooden church 1th green blinds send 



out fifty of its mejjbere to the forelRn field. 

•iro ve wlolding the po\ver of prayer for missions. It was in prayer 
in the upper room that ronteoost was received, it la prayer tlvit every er et 
movement of modern nlsEions vjas foundei and every oyeat revival hoEUn. 

Amid all the vanities and frivolities of life, in the midst of all 
the douht and questioning that beset us, amid all the v-asted time and talents 
of life’s little day, vhat else is more worth v.hile than this Investment of 
life for the uplift of humanity to Gofli If there be any virtue, and if their 
be any praise, let us give ourselves to this great cause, saying, This one 
thing we do, "i-ord, thou knov.est we love thee." 



l^’Our hearts aro saddened heyond all measure,not only beoause of 
the awful misery and suffering which the conflict will bring upon the nations of 
jiirope.but also because of its woeful effect upon the non-Christian world. Only a 
few days ago Mr. Roy wrote to me from Saharanpur, saying the HohaamedanB were already 
casting it into their teeth,saying,"look at these Christians,killing each other in 
thousands, and all for nothingl They are a good deal worse than we Mohaimedans."j 
we do hope and most earnestly pray, it may soon come to an end,tint a way may be 
found out of this terrible muddle; yet as the conflict goes on, that hope grows less 
and less, but if the war is fought out to the bitten end,the situation hero for us 
will be well nigh intolerable. And so we must oast ourselves ui>on God,and comfort 
ourselves with the assurance that He reigns,and that,no matter what happens. His is an 
everlasting kingdom,the powers of hell shall not prevail against it. 

The darkness however is not without many a ray of hope and 41ght. 

The bri^test of these is the enthusiastic outburst of loyalty and devotion to the 
British Government throu^out the length and breadth of India, coming from all classes 
of people. All the resources of the Indian Empire are placed at the disposal of the 
Government. Hot only the educated,but the common people too seem to take a keen interest 
in the war,and hope that Brittain’s cause will triumph. 

I,:r. Spoers Keply to Dr. Orbison's Paper on Cooperation of 
Christian Graduates on iCission field, 

July 13th 1914. 

The Kev. J.H.Orbison, il.D. 

341 'Vest 51st Street, 

Hew York City. 

!,ly dear Hal; 

I was very glad to get back the papers from Dr. Griswold 
with your additions. I think I had seen the report on securing 
the services and sympathy of Christian graduates for mission work 
but was very glad to read it again. -Vith a good part of it I agree 
but not with the conclusion that a fev/ selected native men should 
be made members of the IJission after the analogy of the government 
service in India nor that this course would solve the i-roblera with 
tfhich you are dealing and advance the independent spirit of the 
Indian Church, In my judgment, this course involves confusion of 
principles and responsibilities and would as effectually weaken 
the church as any course that we could take. The analogy of the 
British Government does not hold in the Hative Church, in which we 
go far beyond the British Government and hold, or at least I do, 
that it should be entirely Indian, The foreign mission is not at 
all like th4 British Government in India. It is only a temporary 
foreign agency entirely supported by funds from without. ffhe 
British Government, whatever its ultimate theory may be in the 
minds of a few people, is the permanent government of India wholly 
supported by money raised in India in whose administration the In¬ 
dians have a right just as they have a right to the entire adminis¬ 
tration of the native church. The real solutlonof the problem is 

for ipen like Dr. Datta, Dr. Cha'(|iterjee and others to aotut.lly serve 


and defend upon the native chu^bh. This is the way the hative 




church was huilt up In Japan. I think it would be futile to hope 
that It oan be built up when the strongest faen who ought to be its 
leaders, instead of throwing In their lot with it will be satisified 
with nothing but the separation of themselves from their own people 
and a claim of semi-denationlzatlon in order that they may be on 
a level with foreigners. Ko nation will ever make such progress 
which thinks more of foreign institutions than it does of native 
institutions and which exalts employment by an alien administration 
above absolute identification with native life. 

In my opinion, the remedy proposed in your report would 
aggravate the disease. Undoubtedly the situation with which we 
have to deal is a perplexing one and I think the influence and anal¬ 
ogy of the government are very harmful to us in their bearing on 
mission policy. The whole aim of the government is to tie India 
to the British crown; onr entire aim is precisely the opposite, 

',','e do not try to tie India to the resbyterian Church in the United 
States of America. We are endeavoring to build up an Indian Church 
with its ov.n life entirely independent of any ecclesiastical organ¬ 
ization without. 

Have you gone from ..ew York yet? If not, please be sure 
to drop in some time before you ifo away. I expect to be here all 
of this month with the exception of two or three days and shall be 
glad to I'.ee you tiny day at limoheon. 

Very affectionately yours, 


OotoMr 1, 19W. 

Th« FiLenlng, 

Union Kodlot-l Oolloj,'®, 

7Blnan-fn, ahantnne, 

«y denr Vr. 

I was v«ry clad to K«t your (^od Isttsr of July 14th and shell 
do ny test to answer it altho\ 4 (;h it raises some of the most dlffloult questions^ 
one ti'iwwi to face, and sone of which. It soceis to rae, are questions of 
moral oasnletry pmotioolly insoluble for us. 

1 do not know v-hftt to say in answer to what saons to be the fundaciontnl 
question; narioly, as to how lonf; and how far the raisdoinp: of an Indivlihuil projects 
its taint ux»n that individual's possessions, or how fiir the laisdoinc of a corpora¬ 
tion taints the funds of individuals who rtiy be connected with or who derive benefit 
from euoh a oorporatlon. A further oleraeut of the dlfflonlty in the natter la that 
to often the misdoing is rumored or is not proven; or while It tssy be misdoing. It 
is not, or is not proven to be lllegali or it nay even not bn deemed iBtwral accord¬ 
ing to the standards which provnll at the tine and whloh booono more exacting fmd 


aoourate afterwards* A further element of difficulty is in drawing/dlstinotlon be¬ 

tween money and otlior things. If the financial help of oerteln Indlvldurla Is un¬ 
allowable, would not any other help from them be unallowable? Would it not be wrong 
to employ an imoral oarr^nter in building a ohuroh, as well as wrong to raoelve his 
money toward its construction? 'Then there is the question as to how distinction Is 
to beyande between money honestly made and money whloh is believed to be made other¬ 
wise. How oan they be separated? How, furthermore, arc we to inalcc distlnotlon be¬ 
tween different hinds of Imraonaity, whloh allow us to aooopt the money of ono man, 
but compel thn rejection of the money of another :iwi7 n«»ae are only a few of in- 

uupior&ble qu®atlonB whloh ariw to poi? 7 >lwx on*» 

If /)ne takes personal and oonorete illustrations, the question beoones 
even more pnzsling. Jay Gould, for a»u«ple, was regrmled generally as one of the 

( 24 - 


Bost meroilosB apsoulttor* and railroad wroqkero In this oovintry. I trtiyal dally 
on a railroad that v^as ono« a ntat vnlnable pronarty and li atrucfrllnc still \inder 
the load of indobtsdneas wlUoh ho heapod u;)On it. Tat Jay Goald's dauglitar, Biss 

Hsian Gould, who inherltad part of her father's oor.ey anl who does good with It. 

» * 

h!t» been one of the most respsotad and baloTed Ohrintlan sonea, cl'^'ine to the work 


of the founc Ken's and Tonne ’"oraen'e Ohnrlstlan Assoolatlons, the eTancellsatlon 
of s'^ldlere and sailors, iaisai )iiary efrort and evory pood oauso. Yet, if a taint 
wae attaohed to tJie money of her father thrr>uf;Ji the methoda of Ita aonnrailatlon. 

Is It not the aane money non tliat It was then? 

Tahlnc the oase of i’jr. j,. H. Oeveranae, Nr. fieveranoe'e wealth was atule 
throneh the ;1tandard Oil Coimpr*ny. when ho died it waa found tlu^t he was one of the 
heaviest stool'holdars. Ho lif.d been assoolated wlt)i It for years arui yet no one ever 
hesitated to aoofpt hie help. You Ivove his money In Ghantune University and our 
missionaries have It In «ilnoot every station in dhantuac. He was for years a member 
of our Board and one of Its moat Intellieent and devoted members who Gave not only 
bis money, but his pirayars and affootion to the nisBlonsitles, anti yot hls money oeme 
from the same •ooi'poratIon fron whloh Mr. Hookofeller's hits ooiJie. I arc not trying to 
answer your (question, because I frankly confess that as a moral (ptestlon 1 oannot 
answer It. 

Horae pooi'le try to answe’' it on the score t)uit son* wrons dolnc Is more 
notorious than others, but tliat does not soetj to me to be valid eround beonuse wronc 
is wrong, whether it la obsoure or notwrious, lltwle or big. If it is wrong to re- 
seive money that comas from questionable emiroos, then it wotild aean to be the duty 
of everyone to trace oil the money that Is offered in order to make sure that the 
source from whloh it o-inas is not ^uostlonsble. 

1 SJiy iHel^ln that the ethical questions whloh are Involved are altogehter 

too much for neS 

In «i8 partlonli.r miss which you rolse, however, this istthe way the natter 
If own mind. I tovs never gone either to Nr. RoOkefellsr or to hls son for any- 

thing. Nr. Jlookofeller, Hr., I do not know but the son I do and I believe him to be 



a true and •ameet Chriatlan mn, but I have neT*r asked hta for nonsy for onythlnc. 

Partly beoiwaa I kiiim oTorybody i*aa aakine hla for Konsy and partly beoauae 1 lv,ve 

vary Interosta to onrry ivhl(*i,lt ae^ne to ne^j^praal wore rl^tfolly to othore. 

Partly alao baoauae 1 wanted to sustain a ralatloneip of disinterested friendliness 

toward him and i)Brtly beojiuse this whole question Is Involved In suoh oonfuslon that 

It ssened to me It was best to stay^fro"; It altocothor, ijrlnolple upon which 

I have always tried to work l.i^ 1 aavliUnB wide a marcla as possible from all the edfiee 

and sti'>y-*ii*»on the ernund where one la iiorr^atly sure of hlmsolf. 

In the oaee of the Rookefeller Voundatlon, howevta". It sesoed to toe that 

there was a duty to perform and when tho Invitation oamo from It to go and exjireee 

opinions as to how -Ihlna oould be helped. It seei'd to me It was a duty to go, that 

the fund was a erdat public I'und which belonged to no rian. It was a public trust 

which the world had a rlfdit to acea; ' * t to be usdd In the best way and j-ogardlnc which 

it was the duty of every, oui who was aslcod for coxuisel to do what he oould to aeoure 


the beat adnlniatratlon* When the /' (xuhq before our ova Board r.o to wJiether, If 

the Toundstlon made proposals to help the work In China that involved our schools 
end hospitals, the Board would he ready to cooperate, I took the ground that I thought 
It oujjit, provided Its principles were not In any way oompronlsed, and the Board took 
the followinc aotloni 

"Tlie Board hoard with great Interest and satisfaction of plane which 
were ttnder oonsldemtton hy an important ac^noy for the strengthenlnc of tho 
medloal wortt in Clilna, and the creation of a oonrpstent medical profession for 
that country, Board understood that no oonolusione hiid been reached, and 

that It is desired th.»t the fact tlmt suoh plans are under consideration should 
be held In ooflfldenoe. The Kxeoutlvo Counoll of the Board felt, however, that 
it was desiiuble. In view of tho inquiries made of Kr. Speer, that the Opunoll 
should Know the attitude of tho Board In the matter. In the event thstany def¬ 
inite proposals should be made. Tho Bosird expressed Its ooidUl roadlness to 
consider any plan by whloh It might ooojoerate In the direction Indicated, for 
the relief of suffering Its ChiiU' ana laoral assistance of the Chinese 

people, ^iuestions of detoll wo'dd of course need to be worked out on the basis 
of suoh proisosals as mli^st bo made, and these the Board would be prepared to 
take up In a oooperative spirit, having In mind tht; mirposes apeolfled In Its 
oharter, the nece.islty of n free and tinlflsd admlniotratlon of Its woJfc snd tho 
Integral relatlonehlp of the nedloal mlsslotinries tuid hnopltals to the ontliw 
undertaking of the Board and to Its central effort to oonrranlonte both the 
philanthropic results of Christianity and CBirlstlanity Itself to the people 
whom it 1 b oarrylnf^ on lt» wortt* n 

?o revert once ag^ln to the dlfrimiltleB of the qtioetion, ve not oon- 
froMted with the ear:* eort of prohlarae In prootloally ..11 our politlocl ourroundinee 
and enjoyment of the henofits which are i»ia for by tiowtlon, azaoted, much of 
It, from bad men and obtained, nHoh of It, from traffioe whloh we believe to bo im¬ 
moral »md wronet tony other like queetlnns would bo suf^coated whloh involve more 
or leee the sene ethloal issues which no norel toaohor, eo far as 1 know, has ever 
been able wholly to dlneolve for the tender oonsalenoe, 

)4y Jad/ener.t would be that if the foundation offers help to the rwdloal eol- 
lege on oondltion* which are proper In every way and which do not oonpromls# at all 
the character or alna of your worl:, you wwald bo justified in accepting such help. 

We arc salclne headway slowly in eroueing interest in totin America. I am 

sending you herewith a copy or the report of tho oonfarenoe held here in Kaw Toric 

last spring a year ago, and alno a printed letter regarding the Oooporation Ooniait- 

teo and a report of the reoott oouforenoo held on jJexioo. A# to Biaaion text-books, 

we have none yet that is Rltbgether aatiBfaotory. Bishop Keely has published om 


Idtiloh is a little too poimlar and I have written ono whloh htis turned out/to be pop¬ 
ular enough. I jndge from your letter that yon have not seen it so I ast taking the 
liberty of seisling a copy herewith. 

It was a great pleasure to <iear from you and I Ixope yon will let ne know 
if 1 can ever be og sorvioe. 

Roping to sea you sometime here In How fork or in .Siina, I ara. 

Very oordially yours. 

Ooto'ber IS, 1914. 

Ihs Kev. 'Vllllura P‘ Pulton, D.D., 

V.ltlierspoon Building, 

PhiladelpMa, Pa« 

Uy detir Br. Pulton: 

Out roproaontatlves at the meeting of the Ihceoutive Oo^unlesion 

in Atlantic City reported thi-t eone of these who were present did not seem to under¬ 
stand clearly the relatione of the deficit of oiu- Board to its regui r Budget and 
from a few other inquiries^ hut only a fev, have come to us^we have Been fearful lest 
there mi^t Be some confusion regarding the finanoia.l situation. As you know, our 
Board is very Jealous of its reputation in suoh natters and is anxious to have all 
its financial processes as clear as to every one. Shis has always Been its 

policy and will always Be so* 

The question as it:aroae at Atlantic Oity and us it has since come to us. 
is whether the Board of Foreign Kisslons is justified in the request vd:ich it has sent 
out for an increase of sixty per cent in the gifts of the dhurohee. Women’s Boards 
and Sunday Schools over wtet they ^feular^^ 

and also whether the deficit should Be included within this sixty per cent increase 

or regarded as additional thereto. 

A. ,0. -r. 31.1m,. of <1» 3o,-lt«e. ot «1» 

I .0 ™u. “ »»“ >" '• 

to you. 

,W P.r ...t •M'* ™ “» “* 

.A. .1.3.. "• *- 

.. A. a.- a3 ... "*, 

t™, 3......... ... -n A—... “• 

was fixed By the Budget doimittee. 

Dr/ Teuton 


Hhen wo met the Budget Coninlttee on Jijiufcry 20th, re submitted the follmvlnc 
flrot lenfc-tiTo Budcot which you oan verify if you have iireserved tho i^pere which we 
pieoentod at this neetlnc: 


0LA013E3 L. and II. lilssionarlee now in service, furloufjie, children's 

allowances, etc.931,266.58 

0LA33E3 IV. - X. (liscluslve of Olaas VIII.) Required hy tho KlaBlons 

for their actual work and present opportunities .. 671,886.69 

aiA 33 IV. - X. (EXoluelve of Olass VIII.) Required hy the Missions 

in addition, if any advance la to be mads . 140,779.86 

CLASS VIII. Kew property asked . 1,983,709.00 

OLASS III . Bow mlaaioncrles - Cost in 1913-1914 . 90,060.00 

Emercenoy health returns ... 5,000.00 

Special fund for Inoreasinc efficiency of Mleslonarles by fxirlouch study 2,000.00 

Administration and charges ordered by Genei'al Assembly and Misaion 

expenditures in the United States . 160,000.00 


Peficit on the year 1913-1914 (;)65,30ft,50 vms the deficit for 

1912-1913 ). 

In connection with this tentative budget we presented the following estimated 
income for 1914-1915» 


Tentative Budget approved by the Hxeo. lioiunlssion to be apportioned to the 

Churphes. ’.loraettjs,Boards. Sunday SchpalSi*nd Y.P.S .. v 1.573,434.90 

Estimated reoeiffi*?i«m^j^!l8«tp?H5a«4^4®tfti budget . 100,000.00 

Estimated miscellaneous donations applicable to tho budget ... 125,000.00 

Estimated income from Kennedy Securities and the Educational Endow¬ 
ment Fund and other opeolal endowments .. 120,000.00 

Profits on building in New York . 23,000.00 

Special China Campaign Pledgees 

(a) Property . 

. .t;;;;*:::::: 

We pointed out that to bring the tentative bxidget within this income v;ould 
require ue to out out all the new property, espedlally as there were some Items in 
the eetlmtod income, such as the special China Oampaiga pledgee, which were probably 
excessive. Ther; was a long dlBoueslon, as you will remember, as to whether we ought 
to out all. our property out of the budget and thus leave that field of epeoial appeal 
to egenoiee outeldo 8Be church. All the meobe s of the Budget Oormlttee 

Br. T\aton 


itronrly Bubjeot and, aa you will reir<em1)or, the Ooiunlttee of lt» own aooord 

Increased the first Item of the eetlnmted Income by reconrondlnc a twenty per cent 
Increase over the budget apportionment for 1913-14 Inetead of ten per cent which was 
what we had proposed* 

As you will ace, this budget did not Include the deficit for 1912-1913 or 
the estimated deficit for 1913-14* The Budget Soiwnlttoe was not figuring upon this 
at all as part of the regular budget which was to bo covered by apportionment* It 
was clearly stated and understood that the deficit was to be raised In addition to 
the budget whloh your Oomlttee was considering purely on the basis of the actual 
current needs of the work, Irrespootive of the defloit* 

After your Oomlttee met and approved, ae you later did in your meeting, a 
budget of fl,760,000* for our Board, to be received from Churches, Vi'oraeu's Boards, 

Sunday Schools and Young People's Societies, and our Board oame to maise its acutal 
appropriations to the tilsslons for the year beginning April 1st which, as you know, 
we have to make In February In order that the lilssions may receive the appropriations 
by the beginning of the year, we dieoovered that our reoeipts for 1913-14 were falling 
short of the budget for tliat year and that we o';i^t to be conservative in the amounts 
whloh we authorised the Klssions to begin to spend on April 1st. He accordingly felt 
obliged to hold in abeyance all appropriations for new property and also appropriations 
for equipment under the China Camxjulgn Pund and instead of providing the full^amount 
needed by the Missions for their native work, this was out in half. T.’e advised the 
Klssions that we would have to w%lt imtil we knew whether the churches were going to 
oome up to tholr apportionments for the new year before dsolding whether the Ulsslons 
could have the rest of what they needed* You know how conservative our Board has always 
been in its appropriations and we felt the need this year of Ijolddng everything olossly 
In hand, but it never entered our minds that such conservatism would bo punished by the 
proposition that the defioit, whioh was quite outside our budget, should be thrust within 
it and mads to absorb the bery items whloh your Budget Committee Begarded as so neosasary 

Dr. Pulton 


♦hot you inoreaaed our appmrtionment in order to inolude «. If. now, our deficit i. 
to te put into our reculr-r budcet and to mTallov? up wl*it the Budget Connlttoe apportioned 
as for the needs of the work, it simply moans that property rdiioh is indispeusahle and 
for which we intended the hudgot to provide, must he saorlfleed and that the mssione 
jannot have for their living work of eduoation and evangelisation^ the amounts which 
the budget was to coverjand that other things also must he withheld. 

Is it conceivable that Jiist because we did not go ahead at once and plunge into 
all the e:^;iendltureB covered by the Budget Oonmlttee’s apportionment, but deemed it wiser 
to delay some of these expenditures until wa oould see whether the full allotment was 
oo?Hng in, that therefore the Board and the Missions should be penalized by having the 
deficit pushed rl^t upon the living needs of our work? I do not believe the Church 
would approve of this kind of an answer to oaroful and conservative trusteeship. 

Ao to the arjparent dlsoreijanoy between the sixty per cent increase which we 
have maiat^nad in our letter to the churches and the twenty per cent granted by the 
Budget CoBralttee, I need only say that the dlsorepainoy is not real. The twenty per oent 
increase has in mind the amount apportioned by the Budget Comnlttee to our Board for 
1914-13, Sut it was the falling off in this that produced the deficit for 1913-14. The 
sixty per oent is reckoned on the amount actually received which must bo increased by 
this percentage so as to provide the roouirements of last year's dofioit and to meet 
the needs which the Budget Oomilttee had in view in making the budget for 1914-15. 

In view of the mind of the Budget Oomlttee as so clearly eiiiressed on January 
20th, we have felt and feel still that it would not be rlgiit to follov; any other oourse 
than to attempt to raise the deficit in addition to the budget for the year and this we 
are endeavoring to do. Even this would mean a contribution of leas than #1.50 from 
every member of the taiurch and Women's Societies. ^ 

1 have spoken of the matter entirely from the point of view of the flnani^ 
system of the Churoh. If one looks at it from the point of view of the work abroad 
and the present world situation, the idea of frustrating the plan of the Btdget Oom- 
nlttee and of making the work pay for the deficit instead of appealing to the Churoh 

T)r. Pulton 


to rciujTe it 1)800006 unthinkable. Does It not7 

It may be that questions will bo addressed to you as Chnirnan of the Budget 
Oomnlttee which prejiared the year's budget and I thought it was well to reoall these 
fasts to your mind, althou{^ doubtless you have them all clearly in vlev. I know that 
^ can count on your strong help to see that both the work abroad and careful and oon- 
goientlous administration at home are recognized and dealt with in equity. 

Very faithfully yours 

Some opinions on the letter addressed to Dr. Robert E. Speer 
by four .Indian members of the Allahabad Presbytery on the 
question of the Relation of the Mission to the Church. 

rile Rer* R. B. DoaijlaSf U. f. C- MissiOD. Bombay. 

■■ Many Uiatiks for sen iidg ,ne a copy o( your letter to t)r. Speer and the Joint Letter 
1 am very much interested, fne lines tvliieh are snggested in yoor statement (Appendix A) 
and in Or. Emnp's note (Appendix U, are tliose on wliicli the United Free Chnreh Mission 
is moving. Onr Foreign .Mtssion Com nittee in Edinl.nrgl, a f„„ years ago requested the 
Mission Conneils inJndia to consider tne question or the relations ot the Mission to the 
Indian Chiircli and workers, and as a result proposals which unihoily the principles 
yon advocate nave oeen submitted to the Foreijjn .Mission Committee by the Nagpur and the 
Western India .Vlission Councils ot our Church. Tlie object of theic proposals is to transfer 
to the Presoyteries of the Indian Church a gradually increasing amount of the work at 
present carried in by the Councils. To begin with, it is proposed to hand over certain 
dehnite sections of the work, along with the fund received from Scotland for their main¬ 
tenance. The worR thus transferred will be under complete control ol tlie Presbyteries, 
working through li.'cecutive Boards, i'ne Missionaries in charge of the transferred work are 
already members of the Presbyteries, and will be memuers of the E.\ecutive Boards, along 
With other me nbers appointed by tne Presbyteries, and otliers elected by congregations which 
contribute to tne funds of the Board; but wiic.n the Board is in a position to appoint its own 
workers to the Mipcrintendence of the work, these will become the members of the Board 
under rules whicii the Hoard will lormulate. 

f believe this is the line on which a solution of the problem of .Mission and Church in 
India will be found, it secures co-operation between Indian and liuropean ^or American) 
workers on the basis of complete equality of status .and while the work will become increa^ 
singly that of the Indian Church, with a consequent stimulus to Indian initiative and genero¬ 
sity, the tin.incialaid of the Western Churches will still be maintained as long as it is needed. 

^ 1 he statement which you have drawn up impresses me as a very convincing one, and 1 

have no doubt it will be generously responded to.” 

Xlie Rev H- L. Wiley, A. P. Mission, Ratna^iri. 

' 1 have just read your letter to Or. Speer in the Indian .Standard. 

1 agree for the most part witli the letter in fact with all the letter, but one or two statement 
may be little too sweeping. But as reformers usually liavu to use superlatives, I do not take 
exception to tnein. I Imve oeen advocating in our Presbytery and Mission this closer relation- 
>hip, but liave got nowhere, for lack of a scheme that is acceptable to many on both sides, 
lam ready to admit Indians as full members of the Mission, or to turn over the management 
of any or all work, financially and otherwise, to the Presbytery, or have joint management 
of Presbytery and Mission-anythingtoget together.” 

( 3 ) 

Dr. S' K- Dutfai ¥• M- C. A-t Calcutla- 

" Miny thanks for sending me a copyof your letter to Dr. Speer. ! throu^’ilyagr 
with you." 

The Rev- J- Bitimann, Danish Missioni Madras. 

“ I have read with great interest the letter sent to Dr. Speer and the correspondence 
attached to it. I believe you are pointing out the only lines that can be of any use, if God s 
work is to prosper herein India. And if we are not willing to follow your lead, we the 
European Missionaries had better go home. The crux of the questi on is, it seems to me, that 
Indians must as a matter of course not as a matter of grace be admitted into full fellowship 
and status with the foreign Missionaries in all matters. If that is not clearly recognized 
and carried out, the other changes will be of very Httle use. I, of) course, am speaking of 
Indians with the necessary qualifications, we are in our Mission just now ^fighting for this 
principle and I trust we shall succeed.” 

The Rev. N. H- Tubfes. G- M- S, rialcnlla. 

'■ voti so much for sending me a copy of your printed letter to Dr, Speer. It 
nu admirable statement and 1 e.nrnestly hope and pay that not only vour Misson l>ui all 
Missions In India will face the present serious situation fearlcsslv and wifhouf tlflnv. The 
most urgent need in Indian Xianity today is to make Christian work in all its department 
Churrh-ceutrlc instead of 'fission-centric." 

The Rev. J. N- Parquahar, D. Lit , Y- M C- A-, Oxford- 

“ 1 read the other day the letter to Dr. Speer signed by yourself and three other 
Presbyterians. The document is so moderate, so sane, and so wise in its proposals that I want 
to write and tell you and your friends that I strongly agree with it. God grant that the letter 
may prove really powerful in convincing the American leaders." 

The Harvest Field. 

" Some members of the Presbyterian Mission, Allahabad, have forwarded to us some 
documents that have been sent by them to the Secretary of the Board in America, in which 
they plead for a closer bond between the mission and the church. They put their case 
temperately and wisely, and doubtless their object will be gained. The tendency evervwliere 
is to make the church the centre of all Christian work, and as quickly as suitable men are 
forthcoming to accept and bear responsibility, the burden of administration will be placed 
upon them. The time is approaching in many old established missions when the church will 
be the main thing and the missions subsidiary. For this foreigner and Indian must unite 
cordially and heartiy." 

( 3 ) 

0. M. S Policy in ihe United Proyincee (as printed in the LachnoiT Dloceun 
Chronicle for October 1920). 

"That the rarnrslly hope th« the visit of the delej.itioo tvhieh they propose 

sending to India will be an apportiinity tor careful consultation regarding the development of 
the Indian Church life and organization. In the meantime they are mindful of the fact that 
the purpose for which the Church Council system was inaugurated was to prepare the way 
tow.irds ultimate cliocesan organization. 

Notv that a Constitution has been atlopted forth Lucknow Diocese the Committee 
hesitate about perpetuating the definitely Society aspect of the Indian Church Council by 
appointing a new Chairman. Rather they prefer to settle 1. C. C. merged'into the Indian 
Church section of the diocesan organization and thus making its full contribution to it. The 
l.C.C. can still, if it so desires, retain its separate entity therein as a “ District Ccuncil, *’ 
a second" "District Council" being naturally furuished out of the S. P, G. Congregations. 
In such case each District Council would obtain its Chairman according to the rules and 
regulations of the diocesan Constitution. The Committee desire to assure the 1. C. C. that 
such entry in the larger life of the Diocese will in no way imperil endowments or other Trust 
funds intended for the use either of I. C. C, or of individual pastorates within it, since all such 
funds must necessarily be administered in accordance with the terms of the Trusts which 
control use. 

That the Committee clearly recognise that the work of a foreign Mission in India is not 
to build up a body of Indian Christians subservient to the standards and practices of the 
Church which sent it forth, but rather, having olanted the one catholic and apostolic Church, 
to leave it the fullest freedom for developing its own local presentment of thc'grace and truth 
of jesus Christ 

It follows that so soon as the Cliurcli has taken root in the new soil, and long before 
it has grown strong enough to dispense altogether with the help of the foreigner, its members 
must be deeply interested not oiilv in the direction of activities for which they can themselves 
take full responsibility but also in all work which the foreign Mission undertakes on their 
behalf.- ArrnnUvgly -Mhen', " Church “ and " Mission ” are at toork side by said it is of the 
utmost imfior/iDtre not oiify that the direction of definitely Church matters shottld be preponder- 
atlv hidiiiii hut also that the Jiidiaii Church should have a gnmhig share iji the control of 
agencies still carried on by the foreign Mission. 

R.'cactly to what degree this principle can already be applied with advantage in the work 
of the Mission is a matter upon which the Committee hope to obtain fresh light through the 
delegation which they hope to be able to send to India at an early date. In the meantime 
they wish to give immediate expression to the principle in the United Provinces; and as an 
avowedly interim measure they invite to .seats on the Allahabad Corresponding Committee 
four men to be selected by the Indian .section of the Diocesan Council two of whom shall be 
cliTgyu.i-n and two laymen. 

opfice of secretary 

»»f Hf** 

^rursbetfriatt Olbut-rfo in tbf 



September 21, 1920. 

Kr. J. M. David, B.A., 

The Hev. A. Ealla Earn, 3.A. 
professor N. C. Piulcerji, M.A. 

Er. H. K. Eukerji, B.A. 

Bear Brethren, 

Your ooiciDunications of June 15th addressed to me and of July 22nd 
addressed to the Members of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in the U.S.A. with various accompanying papers have been received. We 
are glad that you have written with candor and freedom with regrird to this im¬ 
portant problem which in one form or another arises in each land where the 
Christian Church iS founded through the instrumentality of foreign missior.p.ry 
effort. We understand that your present communioations are personal and not 
official, at the same time that you are confident, as you write, "that in our 
sentiments we do not merely represent ourselves but the whole Church in India." 
It is a good thing that these questions should receive the fullest discussion 
of this character and that by personal conference and correspondence we should 
seek for the right path of further progress. At the same time it seems to us 
that when the question is one affecting the life and relationship and power of 
the Church, the Church itself might well give it consideration in its Presbytor- 
ies, Synods and Assembly, and deal with the Missions and with the Churchus which 
have sent them forth in the equal and fraternal spirit which should characterize 
the relations of such autonomous, independent bodies as the Church in India and 
the Church in the United States. We should welcome such an earnest consider¬ 
ation of the matter. Meanwhile, however, 1 am happy to reply ta your pirsonal 
octijnunioations in the same franloiess and friendship with which you have Aritten. 

I- nan not better express to you our general view of the question which 
you are discussing than by quoting a letter of the Presbyterian Board to the 
Synod of the Church of Christ in Japan, written in 1906. The question of lel.- 
tions between the Church of Christ (i.e., the Presbyterian and Eeformod. Church) 
in Japan and the missions of the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches in Japan w: s 
then a very prominent and perplexing problem. The Church in Japan was a strong 
and vigorous body. It didnot wish to weaken its national charr.otc.r by any 
confusion of its own work or membership with the work and membership ‘of th^. 
Missions. It believed that the Church as a Church should be self-sustained and 
governed and- it believed that the Missions as Missions had a vital work to do in 
cooperation with the Church. The question was what s'nould be the principles 
and methods of this cooperation. The Church in Japan stated the matter as 

"It is. now more than thirty years since the Church was first founded, 
and already it has a history that may rightly be described as eventful. 
Among its ministers and private members there are many who are well deserv¬ 
ing of respect. It extends from one end of Japan to the other, and 

Page No. 2. 

It has a Board “ongregations. 

and thG astablishnent of ohurohea ^ Thefeforp evangelization 

to claim that it has a ri^rtfr^n-pp “ reasonable 

». o,’=LL‘fr.s™o:."t' 's^7/is ", 

other lands, under lihe circumstances.'wLl lllT" “ 

from time trt'mr?o^"ne«Tnn"en" 

Whether it is ma??er L fa^t nn falready a matter of fact, 
word cooperation is used. The°faot^ttet^the°m- 

aid in the support of pastors LtabUs^^Ld evangelists. 



the system aTf s^^-is tMt ^faTiirin 

^ ihe cooperation which the Church seeks is a cooperation of the 
missions with the Church as a Church. The missions and 
the ChOTCh, acting as independent organizations, should make clear and 
definite arrangements with each other under the principle set forth- 
and the work of the missions as missions carried on within or in oImo 
connection with the organization of the Church should be controlled by 
such arrangements. Cooperation should find a partial analogy in tho 
alliance between England and Japan; not in the relations between Japan 
and Korea, 

The Church of Christ in Japan owes much to the missionaries of 
the Presbyterian and Reformed Churhhes. Some of them will be remembered 
as among its founders and early guides; and to the Churches from which 
they come, and the Boards of Foreign Missions which they represent, it 
will always be a debtor. The future — the wonderful future which now 
perhaps lies before it - nay bring many changes. But no changes of the 
future can change the past; and the past with your sympathy and kindness 
is a pledge for the future." 

To this the Presbyterian Board replied as follows: 

"We are glad to receive a communication from your Church. We 
welcome the kind expressions of your letter, and of the statement of 
the Synod with reference to the Churches of the West, and we rejoice in 
that fellowship in a common faith and service which we are confident will 
increase and not diminish as we draw nearer together in the ful.fillment 
of a common mission. There is no national Church in whose founding and 
growth our own Church has taken a deeper interest. From the time that 
Dr. Hepburn, now in his ninety-second year, reached Yokohama, the friends 
of the extension of Christ's Kingdom among all nations have watched and 
prayed over Japan, and since the fctutding of the first Church of Christ 
in 1872, your Church has been ever in the thought and heart of our Church. 
We have rejoiced in its consciousness of responsibility and national 
mission, in its strong and steady development, in its fidelity to a true 
scriptural Christology, in its ministry to the intellectual, moral and 
Spiritual necessities of the nation in its period of transition, and we 
rejoice in the yet wider duties which are coming upon the Church in the 

Paye Ho. 3. 

new ago of expanded national inflnanoo and destiny. We that* 

God for tho part we have had in this groat movement. In your 
letter you mahe generous recognition of what we have souiAt to do. 

Your v;ord3 are grateful to ua. We can not wish more for you than 
that in years to come, groat Churches which you may ho instrumental 
in fouMins, ray so speak to you as y-ju have spoken to us. 

We recognize the grave importance of the communications you 
send. We trust we will not be misunderstood, however, in saying 
that we are not troubled or surprised. We have watohed with con¬ 
stant interest and solicitude the developments of the past fifteen 
years or more. Scmetino before his death, the late Dr. T.T. 

Aleitarider wrote out with great care, and, if need not be said, with 
most sympathetic appreciation of the problems and interests of tho 
Church of Christ, a full account of the history of the relations 
of the Missions to the Church up to that time, and we have sought 
since hy correspondence and a study of all available publications, 
to gain an intelligent understanding of this important discussion. 

We havo known, accordingly, the facts which tlio statosient of the 
Synods so clearly brings together, and while wo regret the feeling 
of discouragement on the part of any in the Church or in thellissions 
and their doubt as to the possibility of any solution, we are not 
unduly troubled, because we are not prepared for a moment to believe 
that earnest Christian men working together to a oommon end and with 
a oommon spirit, can not arrange a basis of satisfactory cooperation, 
and because, further, we are convinced that the problems which the 
Church and the Missions are called upon to solve are the problems 
which inevitably arise in a living movement add are a sign of life 
and progress. 

"We would not speak lightly of perplexities which have brought 
anxiety to you and to the Missions, and the burden of which we, too, 
have felt; but are not these preferable to the ease and simplicity of 
stagnation and torpor? The difficulties of which we are thinking 
have grown out of the living activity, the zeal and far-readhing work 
of the two bodies which it is youf desire and ours to see brought into 
proper cooperation. To have two bodies v;hich need to be bhought 
into ooox^eration is better than to have no problem of cooperation 
because there are no living forces to bring together. We frankly 
confess that we would be glad to have such problems as the one you 
joresent, raised in other lands, provided they should be raised in 
the same temperate and Christian way, and with the same hope of a 

happy Christian adjustment. 

"As we review the history recorded in the Comimunication of the 
Synod, we rejoice at the evidence, as it seems to us, that there has 
been a real and earliest effort made on both sides to reach a wise arp 
rangement. Various plans have been tried in the history of the 
Churdh and the Missions. Some have vrarked for a while and been 
abandoned. Sometimes the dissatisfaction has been on the side of 
the Church and sometimes on the side of thelUssi. ns, and sometimes 
the inevitable and desirable change of conditions has rendered a plan 
no longer wise which seemed for a time satisfactory, andwhi* was 
for that time the wisest expedient. And steadi..y, even '^Hen in . 
iuderoent of the Sjsiod there was no proper cooperation between vh. 
Svn^ and the Missions, the work has grown, and God s blessing h.s^ 
been uira tbs Lurtih. The conditions may not always have been 

Chosen, or the Synod of the Missions, but it is possible 

that in the future, when v;e can lo .k hack anfl study philcscnhically 
the history of the Church in Japan, we may see that G’d allowed 
just these c mdisions to prevail which He saw would be most favora¬ 
ble to the development -.f the Church as a great national institu- 
tijn. ',7e do not say this as justifying these Oonditi-.ns or their 
c -ntinuance, for we believe that the time has arrived for a wise 
s jluti n, if wisc’ -jm may be given t. the church and to the Hiss ions, . 

f one -if the ra-'st important pr blems of the Church's life, - a 
Ijr .'blera inevitable sooner ':r later in the founding of Christianity 
as an independent instituti^,n in that land. it is our earnest 
h ipe that the considerati-in ;f the problems before its may bo lifted 
t^ this high level, all temporary and personal elements. 

"We have said that we are not disturbed that the issue which i. 
Synod's C^mmunioati in presents has arisen, v/e will even venture t: 
go further and to say that we rejoice in it. We should be sorry 
if it liad not arisen in some form. We have never entertaiioed any 
other thought than that the Church of Christ shuld attain the fullest 
measure of national auton-imy, and we shall be happy to see a furthe" 
step taken in that direction. Vie welcomed the ecclesiastical inde¬ 
pendence if the Church. We rejoiced in the union ■;f all Presbyterian 
and Reformed c mgregations in one body, with a siitplified dcotrinal 
basis v;hich guarded against the errors against which the Church of 
Japan had to bear its testim.ny, but which did not perpetuate the J 'C- 
trinal disagreements of the West, or raise in Japan a creedal obstacle 
in the way of a yet larger measure of organic Christian unity in the 
future. We were glad to see the Church received on this basis into 
the fellowship of the Alliance "f the Reformed Churches as a sister 
Church of sovereign freedom, and we are n.t at all disappointed now 
to have the question A a. real administrative independence and auton-my 
brought foiavard f r discussi:n. Our aim in the work v/hich we have 
tried to do in Japan has been from the outset the aim which we c n- 
oeive should oontrcl all foreign missionary work, namely, the estab¬ 
lishment of a. truly national Church, which will be able to take up 
all the resp'.nsibilities of such a Church, and leave the missionary 
agencies free to pass .n to other fields t- do there the same v; rk, 

A truly national Church, supporting its cwn institutions, administer¬ 
ing all its ovm affairs, and capable of evangelizing its ov.n people 
is the ehthanasia of foreign missions. The stronger, the more inde¬ 
pendent, the ra >re truly autonomius, the more missionary the Church 
of Christ in Japan, the greater is our joy. 

"The road which ove have been over in our relations one tc an.f ■ 
has not always been a smooth road. Chat is of no oensequence. We trusted one another, and have been earnestly and sincerely 
seeking one end. And that end has been so far realized. How ''jj-r 
arises the necessity of a further adjustment. We see no reason wdy 
this should, not be made. If the Church of Christ has the Spirit of 
Christ and the Missions have the spirit of J hn the Baptist, which 
the Spirit of Christ, it will surely be possible to reach a satisfac¬ 
tory basis of cooperation. Our Missions have no ambition save to 
advance the interests, to extend the influence and to enlarge the work 
of the Church of Christ. They realize that this is a transition 
time, and that new adjustments are called for. T/e Itnow that they 
are prepared to consider the whole matter with you in the spirit of 
which we have just spoken. The problem you have to consider with the 
has tloree solutions. One is the withdrawal of the Missions from 

)a^3 BO* 5. 

Jcipan. ’,70 are glad that this thought has nut occurred to you, 

With 30,000,000 and more peoioie still to oe reaoheu by the (Jospel, 
with large districts containing himdreds of thousands of souls vnyro- 
videu with any Christian agency whatsoever, with institutions now 
crowded with pupils which still require support from abroad, oxir 
conscience would not approve our deserting you in your immense and 
vitally important struggle. Moreover, such a course, on the face 
of such facts, would be r. confession of wealcness and failure on y.'ur 
part and ours. f, second course would be the continuance of the 
present situation. But this is no solution at all, and would bo i''- 
tolerable to you and to the Missions and to us. The third course 
would be a settlement between you as a Synod and the Miissions jointl;-, 
or, if .no joint action conic he reached, between you and the Missi ns 
separately, o: , between the Presbyteries and the Missions at T;orlc 
within their bounds. v;e do not understand from the Communication 
of the Synod that it wished us to make any detailed suggestion, and 
this understanding is confirmed by the clear statement of your Commit¬ 
tee’s letter, to the effect that the Missions and the Chrroh, acting 
as independent organizations, should make clear and definite arrange¬ 
ments %vith each other under the principle set forth. That principle 
you have stated with equal clearness in the declaration that the 
Church 'has a right to a voice in all work carried on within its 
organization or closely connected with it.' We do not see why there 
should be any hesitation in accepting this principle. V/e accept 
it heai'tily. 'We would accept it in the case of a Church far less 
advance in autonomy and independence than the Church of Christ in 
Japan. We recognize that the terms in which the principle is stated 
will need some definition. What 'voice'? How 'closely connected?' 
roes the phrase 'all work' limit the personal freedom of a missionary 
more closely than the personal action of a presbyter or layman of the 
Church of Christ? But these are ruestiohs which vie are entirely 
prepared to leave to determination in conference between the Church 
of Christ in its Synod or Presbyteries and the Missions or missionaries. 

'We think it might help to a clearer understanding of the problem 
if the Church and the Missions could put themselves each in the other'.' 
place. We have endeavored to do so here. How \would the Synod 'f T'e 
York feel, for example, with reference to Missions established withii. 
its bounds by the United Free Church of Scotland? This is not a 
purely hypothetical case; for shortly after 1717, when the Synod of T'ov 
York was estfthlished, the Mother Churches in Great Britain have us ar , 
Fold the Syni'd of Glasgow raised ^55,000.,one-tenth of which was sent 
to irew York, and the remainder v;as used to send missionaries through'.': 
the colonies. S’.ioh conditions were not found unendurable then. I i • 
time the church of Christ 'vill probably face this problem in its own 
missionary experience in other lands. Those principles diiould be 
followed now in Japan which we should wish iollowed nere were the Uni tut 
Free Church at work in the Synod of New York, and which you will wish 
followed in China or Afghanistan in future years. 

"There is one feature of the situation that is of special in¬ 
terest to us. It is the proposition to deprive of full ecclesiast'.oal 
standing "all churches which fail within a reasonable time to attain 
self-support. The principle involved here is not novel to us. Many 
missionaries have held the theory that no church should he fuily crgcnu. 
ed, have a nastor installed over it, and be admitted to presbyterial 

pa£e NO. 6 

thrfi™ =®lf-s’-y?ortlnc. yo-oi- proposition is simply 

the firm .-pplioation of this pr-insiple to your own oonFrepati o^ v'b 
shall watch the outcome with deepest interest, it will te a steo ’ 
far in aovanoe of our own Church in America. Here, of 7536 fullv 

ZTn.Ur'''"""' preshyterial standing, about 2500 

are not self-supporting. The course you propose, if applied here 
would either force some of these churches to self-support, or would 
reduce tne number of our organised churches about thirty-three and 
a hire, per cent. ii applied in some foreign mission fields it 
woulc, annihilate the Church entirely as an ecclesiastical orgLiication, 

V/e are not prepared to say that the course you propose is not wise 
everynere, and especially so in Japan at this time, and we shall 
earnestly pray that it may result in greatly increasing the number of 
self-sustaining churches and in stimulating the -whole body. 

" /e have replied to the Gommunication of the Synod and to your 
letter with fullness and with entire confidence, as brethren to 
brethren. ',Ve feel sure that we have represented the mind of our Hiss::, 
in Japan. There is one f-.irther thought, however, which we wish to 
suggest. As we have said, the problem novj raised is inevitable. It 
has arisen, or it will arise, in every land where the work; 
of founding the Christian Church is under way. liust we say that the 
problem is insoluble, and that Christian men in the highest and most 
Christ-like of all undertaltings can do no more than disagree courteously, 
and separate? \?e can not believe this. v/e are sure that the problem 
can be solved, and we believe that the privilege of solving it is now 
given to the Church of Christ in Japan, - the problem of cordial, harmo¬ 
nious, cooperative work with the missionary force in the field, during 
the period intermediate between that of the first founding of the Church 
and that of its full establishment, v/hen foreign missions shall be needed 
no more, because their place will have been taken by home missions in 
power. This problem,if solved by you in Ja.pan, will be solved for other 
countries also, and the solution will be an honor to the Church in Japan, 
and a rich gift to the Church of Christ in other lands. We do not anti¬ 
cipate, however, any solution by means of formal stipulations unchangerb-y 
operative. It is a living movement in which vje are engaged, and what 
vje rather hope for is such living and sympathetic adjustments as will 
meet the present needs, and be capable of such further modification as 
the changed conditions of the future will be sure to necessitate. 

■'This reply to your Communioation is sent not only in behalf of o-ui' 
own Board, but also in behalf of the Board of Missions of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church, vmose work v;ill henceforth be consolidated with tte 
v.-ork of o-jT Board, as the two Churches are now reunited in one. 

V/ith earnest hope that 'the future, the wonderful future,' of vwich 
you justly speak as perhaps lying before the Church of Christ in Japa- . 
may be all that you and we could wish,and that it may bring to the Church 
the richest measure of the Holy Spirit of God and of His Son, Jesus 
Christ our lord, 

V/e are, in behalf of the Board, etc." 

The situation in Japan at the time of this correspondence differed from 
the present situation in India, but the spirit in which our common problems must 
he met was the sane then as now. Moreover the principles for which we are see’/.in 
-- 1-8 principles which will be good always and everywhere. Of these principles 
one ioh we think is clear and unquestionable is the principle of the primacy 
01 the national Church. To be sure the Church is not an end in itself. It 


page Ko.V. 

exists for service, for the purpose of ’.vitnessing to the Grosuel.of evangelizing 
the nations, of sanctifying hujr..on life. And its glory is found in the measin-e 
of Its r.chievenent of tliess ends. To aid in the establishment of such churches 
and to work with them toward the evangelization of the world in the aim of 
foreign missions as vie conceive it. 

This is our air. in India, There, '.ve rejoice to remember, the Church is 
already on independent nationa church. Neither the Church in the United 
States nor any of its missions has any ecclesiasticr 1 jurisdiction within its 
bounds. There was n time when this was not the case, when the Presbyteries 
in India were Presbyteries not of the Church of India but of the Presbyteri;n 
Ciiuroh of the U.S.A. and when Indian churches and ministers were amenable to a 
foraign General Assembly sitting in a foreign land. v/e are glad that that d-; 
is is gone by. ’7e do not want to see it or anything that perpetuates the 
principle of it restored. There are some other denominations which hold to 
tl e idea of a universal extension of the denomination, v;ith all its parts 
governed from the home centre in Europe or America. But we have never accept¬ 
ed this idea. It is not our endeavor to spre^ the Presbyterian Church of the 
United States of America over the world amalgamating with it and subjecting to 
its pnrisdmction the churches which may have been founded by its missions in 
Japan and China and India and elsewhere, v/e believe in an Indian C}iurch, net 
identified with an A.merican church but independent, national, free, related 
to the churches of other lands as an equal, working with than to save and unite 

Holding this view,it would seem to us that the solution of the present 
problem is to be found not in disparaging the Indian Church, nor in dividing its 
strength, nor in diminishing its responsibilities, but in just the opposite 
course, by increasing its authority, by expecting more of it, by iiiaking it the 
great agency of evangelization. Instead of transferring a few strong Indian 
leaders from the Indian Church to a foreign mission, removing or dividing their 
obligation and allegiance, in order tha.t they might share in the administration 
of money from America we would transfer the administration of the money to the 
Indian Church or to some such joint cooperative agent as proposed by the Church 
in Japan. To transfer a few Individuals in the way proposed might or might not 
be good for them or for the administr: tion of the work, but it would not give 
to the Indian Church its rightful place or development, and it might be a. posi¬ 
tive injury to that Church, involving undemocratic distinctions, withdrawing 
vital responsibilities and the leadership essential to their discharge, and 
ez?.lting a temporary and purely subsidiary agency, such as the foreign mission 
is, into the place of the authentic and enduring Church. 

7e are sure that the Board is entirely ready to consider the transfer to 
the Indian Church - Presbyteries, Synods a-nd, Assembly - of any of the responsi¬ 
bilities or functions remaining to the missions (which have, even now, no 
ecclesiastical authority whatsoever) ' Bich the Indian Church is prepared to t..: •. 
over, and with them to transfer such annual contributions .as its means allow an 
E -.oh a basis of understanding as will gradually accomplish the financial self- 
s vooort of all its work by the Church. 

Vai’ious suggestions have been made, as your communications indicate, as to 
the method of this larger fulfilment of the missionary ideal. In different 
countries progress has been made in different ways. In some, and nothing could 
re ..ore healthy than this course, the national Church has risen in its ewn 
strength and t.'Jcen over its real work. It has suggested no allov/anoes, and 
E. -ei t no human help. As in Uganda and Eorea, it has claimed the power of the 
S_.itit .,nc eiitered into its nission. In other lands the local chrurches or 

.a .:a"te. ies tj-.d zhe Ilissions, coo lei..ting wit.'i them have siriply and as c matcor 
or EP to;. 'c :..3 -.'.ork, in co;i: . 0:1 counsel E.nd sacrifice and ende-vor, 

it:, ■-■-.tu 1 . .. , Id. , r/ trust. It is thus in Cliin: to-c\-,y,wbere o:;Lrrc:'es :d 

Page No. 8 

missions are working together pq v , 

japan definite cooperative plans have bpen afionted colossal task. m 

of Christ in 1906,Whereby the evanpelisti^^rfof the'’m,°sp' 

tery is cro-ried on by a joint Co^ittee representL LTh ^ Presby- 

£“‘S;„ inSS.™"Sir„s. 

of oui’^B^rd^a^d “°^icial*^fepresenLtives"oJ%h°T'\''®^’'®®®^^ 
bounds the three Missions arf pt worM o i Presbyteries within whose 
suggest wise plans to the Presbyteries ‘ graodrand^-^''”*^^ question and to 
Church and the Board. We recognize also^hpt th^ '_‘^®sions, and to the Indian 

embraces a great deal of missioSry work oir'ried on bv^th Church 

and Reformed Churches, and it may L th=f ^ Presoyterian 

as a Whole and all th^ M^ssLnrLsociat^^1^1^ -i 

auestion their combined study and sepk to i, unite to give the 

bring both to the Church and^to the ® common solution which will 

Of our lord in litdia^^r "Lh wel^lf 

not tcu:h:d"po°n"i:‘5r\':n:r LV?t\s°b^^“ r 

mission fields in the cLcLsiLs of Lese passed over in other 

of women. Here in America vor=n are not c.uestions. It is the work and place 

§511“^ iiSIl:.. 


elders of t>e ohnnoh *“' ^he equal p.-Jticipation of the ministers and 

lun ?nd^n ® for the maintenance of the 

• 0 -^th^-r” ^ representative and member of the Church tr.e 

' "ividu- lf^ut'^io^^n" ' Missions not to a few chosen Indian 

-.-1 fcuels but to the Inc.iru-i church itself and its official agencies. 

= tisfpoi®o^®-^’^°"' repeat in closing what I said at the beginning of our 

-..tisfaotion in receiving your co;taunications and our confidence that out of 

-i.-itations of vision and imperiootions of judgment and our personal temperaments 
^ ■ not prevent our gnu ance by Coe's good Spirit in the discovery of the prii.C’-. 
-^r! ; and true and by which the Church in America no 

1 s than the Cnurch in India may be led to a deeper life and a truer service 

With kind regards, 

Very faithfully yours. 



The PreBh 7 terian Church has always maintained the principle that the 
Church itself is a Uieaionary Society and that every member of the Chureli is a 
member for life of this Society and bound virtue of his manblr^^lo do everything 
in his power to accomplish the duly of the Church, to cirry the Gospel to the .hole 
world. This is the language that the Church has used more than once in defining 
the true ideal of tlie Church and the duty of each one of its manbers. Our 
foreign mis sionaiy work, acoordin^y, is a joint undertaking in which every member 
of the Church ought to be both a stockholder and a director. And the situaUon of 
the enterprise ought to be, in consdquence, the immediate and urgait concern of 
every individual, 

Shat is this situation at the present time? In hnef, the facts are 
that our Church has as noble a missionary regiment as any Church in the world, that 
it has been able to maintain the ranks of this regimoit more nearly intact than 
any other Church has been able to do, that these 14^5 men and women cany on one of 
the richest and most fruitful enterprises that con be found, preaching the Gospel 
through thousands of evangelists in 17 different countries} cooperation with 12 
autonomous Bationil Churches which have grown out of our foreign missionaiy viork, 
with half a million communicant members in all} conducting in addition over 
2000 schools in every grade from the kindergurten to the imiversity, -.yith more 
than 100^000 pupils, with 326 hospitals and dispensaries treating one-half 
million patients annually, with presses which issue scores of millions of pages of 
the Scriptures and Christian books. And all this work is carried on at a cost of 
approximately one-third that of the support of Columbia University alone. 

At present all this work is suffering from reduced and inadequate support 
The missionaries and all the agents of the Board are still bearing a 20 per cent, 
reduction in salaries, while schools and hospitals have had to suffer. And the 
evangelistic work would have had to suffer equally but for the use of money from 
the Harkness bequest, to be applied wholly to the direct evangelistic work. 

although the Board hegau the preset fiecal ye.r on Ap^ 1, 1954, with a 
deficit of ^9,106, it reeolved to carzy thie without charging it againet the year-a 
appz.priationa, ..d in order to avoid an. ^rther reductions on niaaionaz. aalariea and 
the living -eork, it made its appropriations based on the expect.Uon that the 
contril^tions of the churches would increase 10 per cent, over the preceding year. The 
response of the churches for the first part of the year seemed to justifir this 
expectation. For the last few months, however, the contributions have fallen back, 
and the Jaauazy showing was the worst of any month. On February first the increasl 
for the ten months of the year as compared with the ten months the preceding year waa 
only a UtUe over one-half of one per cent. It wiU be neoessazy, accordingly, for 
the Church to provide in the montha of Harch and April nearly one mxiiinn and one- 
quartlr^i^ars if Hie budget of the year is to be balanced without additional deficit 
and one and tbre^uarter mlUioa doUara if the budget la to be met and the accumulated 
deficit is to be cleared away. If ovezy church will give during these la t two months 
on the basis on which it gave in the year 1931-32, it is hoped that tie year can be 
brought to a satisfactory close. WiU it not be possible for eveiy church and every 
donor to Increase the gifts to be sent in these last two months by at least 10 per cent, 
over last year? Thus far the foreign missionary work of our Church has been sustained 
that of no other Church of which we know. WiU not the Church give now so that the 
salaries of the mia sionariea may be r-stored and so that new mission rles may be sent 
who are eager to got 

The appropztlationa for the tturrent year are $2,999,546. toward meeting th-xae 
appropriations we have received for the first ten months of the currant year $1,216,481, 
leaving stiU to be provided $1,785,064. Income fr^ endowment 

Amtiy funds, annuities, etc. was - $400^00 0. If we should receive tlvit same amount this 

year, it would leave to be provided from the churches, wom«i's societies, individuals, 
etc., between februazy 1 and liarch 31, 1935, a Sum of $ 1 ,8 1 6 ,87 4. In other words, we 
must receive more in these two months than we received in the preceding ten. 

This would be a groat achievement, but more then once in the past the Church has risen 
to meet just such a time of neoessily. In the first fifteai days of February the 

contributions showed a distinct upward tuzn, and if the same radio of advance can be 

.^taiBed, it Bill yet be possible to dose the year rtthout additional deficit. 

if only the ohurohes will do batter than this and -i^e out the deficit with -*ich the 
year began, the Board ^ regard itself as »arranfe.d in going forward into the new year 
rith a restoration of the salaries of the missionaries and with a ne^ caU to the young 
,a, end women of the Church to give themselves in response to the appeal of human need 
ihe world around. It is a real appeal. 

At the Annual Keetlng of tlie national Christian Council of Japan, Mr. lamnmasu, 
representing the Hinister of Education, declared, »The Government is helpless when it comes 
to changing the spirit and psychology of the people. Sou religionists should not want and 

take the lead from the Govemmait but lead out of your own Initiative and in accordance with 
your own faith and convictions." Mr. Klkuzawa, head of the Bureau of Religion in the 
Department of Education, s-iid: "We are passing through a time of suff ring and hardship, 
and at such a time the human heart turns to religion for comfort and guidance. There can be 
BO doubt that tlie nation is once more turning its heart toward religion." The Japanese 
Christians in their Council voted, “Mission organizations and missionaries should act from 
an irre sittiUe sense of mission and not wait for an invitation. The mission iry attitude 
of American Christians motivated by an in^ielling inner urge should be positive and agrressive. 
We welcome asaiatunoe from abroad which is motivated by a positive urge. do need to be more 
forthri^t in our presentation of the essential differences between Christianity and Japanism." 

Consider the present opportunity in China, It may be that increasing limitations 
will fall upon the secoadaiy forms of missionary work but nothing hinders missions from 
going about their main business, A recent editorial in "The Chinese Recorder" declares. 

The social changes going on in China may gradually limit the scope of, or even supplant, all 
Christian agencies except that of the Church." A recent visitof with unsurpassed 
opportunities for observation declares, "I find the Chinese stud«jts sobered, heart-hungry and 
adrift, not knowing which way to turn. • The colleges are practically all open and asking for 
■eetings beyond our strength. China is undoubtedly the most wide-open field for evangellam 
in the whole world at the presalt time." 

Consider the open door in India, "There is no real competitor with Jesus Christ in 
the mind of eduoatbd India. Our greatest obstacle for th e future will not be any such 


oo^etition, but the old absorbing spirit of Hindis, which can in appearance accept J»sus 
accepting at the same Ume something which is a denial of alf°Shlch He stands. The 
jtagavadgita is supposed to hold a similar place in the hearts of aU Hindus to that of 
St. John's Gospel in the hearts of Christians. But Mr. Hilary WUson found casually i„ 

^.wolves a4>a-tr3Me^J. M_J as.. 

-• a.*—■•■wui.iSA \^eiouajJ.y 

eanversation that of the twelve students residing in his hostel not one had read it." 

(From E. Phillips' Report to the Directors of the London Missionary Society.) 

"The time has come," some recent critics of Missions have said, "to set the 
educational and other aspects of missionary worir free from organized responsibility to the 
work of consdenUous and direct evangelism." On the contrary the time has come hen 

eveiy agenty, the fomol preaching of ordained men, the eveiy-d^ conversation of 
Christians, the ministry of the hog,ital, the discipline and enlightenment of the school, 
j and every human contact, must be made subject more fuUy than ever before to the one supreme 
aim of making Jesus Christ and ffl.s Gospel, His grace and power, the meaning of His life and 
His death and His resurrection, known to men and women, boys and girls, every’diere, in 
every land, and without delay. 

Extracts from l«!ttrr of Louisa L°p, August in,13Sl 

The presimt-day attitude of sorae churches, rnissionari"S md nation-a 
Christians that th” duty of yc-tp-m churches in foreign lands prictinsll”- 
completed amazes and perplexes me, as I know lb must you. Th" eeogr.aph^ 
and numerical aspects alone of the problem are sufficiently appalling, but 
putting then aside, and considering the social problem, and only one^i’ten of 
that, namely, "untounhability", caste pride and hate, and the -itherlne scorn that 
grows from those, the Church of India is wholly unabl° to meet those 
unaided in carrying on .my Mass ?iov"ment Work, or .any other work An o l.aree 
among the 5D,000,11'D of the depressed classes of India. Moreover the ch'rch 
has not even awakened to its duty of vindicating the Gospel in this wav. 

I OT more and more convinced that caste is H^nduisn a.nd Hinduism is caste - 
that is 'chatur varan ashram', and that, excepting only the doctrine of transmi¬ 
gration of souls and Karma, whi.oh is inextricably wrapped up with that of caste, 
that every other “lement o the religion could be dispensed with .and leave the 
system intact, at least for a period. Idolatry and animism doubtless helm 
to feed the fi ro of caste but I beliovo are not indispensable to it. I believe ‘ 
that when caste goes, the power of Hinduism will be gone. 

H.)sever, 1 think that the present mov'-ment is tending only 
to strengthen ca.=te for the time being, and that Gandhi will be powerless to 
withstand the tidal wave of orthodo-'j' that will come v!ien swaraj co es. It -.rill 
recede later, bait now Hindu India has to 'keep he face' before 'one world. 

'Mother Iniia' blackened it and awakened h^r. The ferment for good started by that 
book however i.s working under the surface. The increase in the number of girls 
being sent to CovermamBibt girli' soho.ils is phenomenal,and the loepartment of 
Education does not know how to keep up with th” increased demand, to give but one 

.Meantime ’se are effectively attacking caste by Mass Movements among 
outcastes, while at the same time using It, really a.s a weapon against itself. 

Hindus are nob slow to see this, b^t are powerless to imitate us to any great 
degree, and especially among sweepers. In our area there is mor^ prejudice 
against them than again.nt any oth'-r caste. An erya S.-amaj leader and lawv-’r of 
Ffitehg.arh ha.s only now been restored to his caste privileges, after having been 
ostracized several years ago, for tokin.g outcasto (including sneeper.a) into 
temples,' and for eating pan and drinking water offered to them." 

'.VHJiRi.AS ^ in HIb l^lnlte «ladom. has sson fit to ronove from 
our midst teko unto Himself our beloved friend and 

the senior physician of 
’’®' romalnlnfi oo-workero, realizing 
that no nsre trordo can express our foollneo, nor r^ord 

**^”'**^®" on our records, and to send 

tnr^'^of''Lov:* brothoro, end to tho seoro- 

of each station In our Klsslon, and aloo to the rrosby- 
torlan Board of foreign Mlsslono In Hov. York City, ^ 

^ -I ST’ •'^^■tbur Punk reached Iran In August, 190;’, 
and loft u:; for hlo heavenly homo, March 6, 1939, Aftor 
ponding one year In Toheran he was transferred to Hamodan, 
"mn expansion of modloal work, bogun by Dr. Alexander, was 
Funk’s rosponslblllty. in 1906 tho present Men’s 
Hospital was built. Dr, Funk overseolng tho ontlro oon- 
otruotlon. Aftor that, modloal work wa s carried on hero 
and at tho down town dlcponaary. In 1996 tho -.Oman’s 
Hospital Vi'ac built, coi^o o atod wlta tho 3£on’a U'oupltal, 

Hore It "ac that Dr, Funk had 'i^crkcd alonu for yoars, 
c-lthout even an A»«erlcuii nuroo to nolp lil«. 

in tho curlier yoars, outside activities fro^u.utly 
c.o. r .u. ' idod tins und thoujit,- as when cholera held sway over 
th-' city, _ah Dr, I'Uni:, alone, bottled with Ignorance, 
euporatltlon and dlsaaoc, and nlso tried to teac.h tho 
poo,.le to oorr, out ills orders for prevcntlvo meosui’o/s, 
Hlo influence was used In mal;ln„ rionadun a oi.,»ui clty,- 
a healthful place of rosldonco, and one of the outstanding 
results was tho ruiiovul of the clou^htor house from the 
city limits. 

But Uia .oc^dlcal ccpcct/f of Dr. ronk'a ~.a'k, thorou,^, 
conelstont and oonsclontlous oo It was, had a daopor alg- 
nlflcanoo than noroly giving physical relief and healing., 
Tho Spirit of Christ who led him to Iran, so poaaossod him, 
that even a ceomlngly 'mall service gave a witness to 
Christ's power and lovo. V.'hethor It was In tho dleponsory, 
rushed with many patients, or during tho night when aroused 
from sleep to a. ttond on emergency case, there wan tho sane 
careful attention and patlonoo that ono »;ov.ld expect after 
a night’s rest in tho usual order of work. Again and again 
the hospital attendants sponk of Tr. Funk’s patlonoo, 
sympathy and understanding of tho sick and of the nurses 
who oared for thou. This Is Indicative of tho opinion o f 
others as they oamo to tho hospital and tho Jlsponsary, 

He was tho Intorostod and aympathotlc ulaslonary doctor 
who would attend th ■> child of the poor v oman rho stood 
hesitatingly at tho gate as woll as tho rich who sent a 
carriage to take him to their homo, 

Tho National Christians boar testimony to Dr. Funk’s 
consistent life and rojoloo that they had this example of 
Christian living. They feel that. In a very special nunner. 

ontored into tholr Jotb 
“« * friend end gevo thorn nodlcil^ 

oare with aore than a peoclng Intoroat. 

hod Fuat'e fnndey afternoon nootlngs at tho hospital 

south and echoes came froia north, 

?ho hAld ?h of the rrroseagos he gave ind 

tho hold th' y had upon those v/ho llstonad, 

- going has loft a groat vacancy onong his 

d?rnr:,T? to speak of aSd noro 

difficult to senco. flo lovod him so and wo know that he 
lovod usl Yes, froa tho oldest to tho youngest In the 
station thoro was tho utiaost oonfldonca In him and tho 
deepest affootlon for liim. Tho ohlldron know him as an 
Intimate friend and lovod him devotedly, no has beon the 
comfort In time of Illness, quietly understanding our wea k- 
nosBosj a strength, giving ua courage during tho lonely 
9^. bosldo tho 1 vod onos,- TTfitchlna: nleht 

after night, himself, whon life was la danger; ohowlng ouch 
faith and dependonoo upon Ood tha t our own faith Incroasod. 
and we could better "ca st all our care" upon our loving 
Father as we waited for the outcome. Ono of the fellow- 
workers has written , "I do not think tlrat any of us has had 
tho respoaElbillty for emarsonclas in oaring for his fellow- 
nlsslonsrles, nor net the emergoncloo as oompotontly as he 
has done." In our hearts tho tributes of thanksgiving 
rise to Ood for the privilege of being aosoolatod with 
auch c life of devotod service and consecration. Those 
menorlos will continue to bo o blessing and on Inoplratlo a 
as fo think lovingly of our frlond who has gone to be for - 
over with tho Lord, 


that ra woxild record our sonso of deep, personal loss, 
whilst thanltlng Ood for tho loving, Ohrlotlan spirit and 
splendid personal example which Dr. I\ink showed us all. 

That wo extend to Hrs. Funk our sincere, heartfelt sym¬ 
pathy, and that wo commend her to ovir Tieavonly Father 
for that comfort and strength which can only come from Him, 



Slgnod( Ploronoo E. Murray, 


( H. A. Llohtnardt, M.D, 

Homadan, Iran, 


Februaiy 19, 1935 

(Diet. Fot. le) 

Ihe Rev. Oigh T. Karr, D. D., 
8X7 Jiberaon -avenue, 
pittsturgh, Peaneylviaiia. 

fy dear Hught 

received Dr. KitUer'e note addressed to the secrotaries of 
the Board asking u6 to seaa you at once infonaatica concerning the finoncl-a 
position Md needs of tee Boards for your use in preparing the special appeal to the 
cimreheB for ioi doaiiife 'tb.o curron't ye^r* 

I irrote a few days ago iu Hr. C, jter's behalf, as he n s ill, to Dr. 
Claavel^d, the Penn^lvunia ^odictj. executive, giving him a brief stateaent telch 
was as foilOi? 6 i 

"The Board of Fbreign Bissious m de out its budget for tee fiscal year 
ending Korch SI, 1956, on a basis of courage and faith. It .rreed to 
carry forward the deficit of #519,106 without charging it against the 
year’s sp|.ropriations, and in order to avoid any further reductions 
on missionary Bi»lari 0 S and the living "ork, it made its appropriations 
based on the e:q5eetation that the contributions of the churciips -rould 
increase 10 per cent, over the preceding year. The respmse of the 
churches for the first pjirt of the year sseoed to jistify this expectation. 
For the 1-st few months, however, Uie contributions h;ive fallsn back, and 
the January shoi-lng was the worst of any ironth. On February first the 
increase for the tear aonths of the year as compared •rite the ten months 
the preceding year was only a lit 'le over one-half of one per cent. It 
will be necessary, accordingly, for the Church to provide in tee I'onths of 
■arch and April nearly one million and one-orarter dollars if the budget 
■ of tee year is to bo bJ.acOed ‘Jlthout additional deficit and one and three- 
quarter nlllion ddllare if tiie budget is to be met and the accumulated 
deficit is to be cleared away. If every church will give during these 
last two months on the basis on which it gave In the year 19S1-52, it is 
hoped that the year can be brought to a satisfactory doae. Rill it not 
be possible for every ctiurch and every donor to increase the gifts to be 
sent in these la t t 'fO months by at least 10 per cent, over lest yeart 
Thus fur the foreign miesionary work of our Church has been sustulned -s 
teat of no other Church of which wo know. Will not the Church give now 
so teat the sal'irles of the missionaries nay bo restored and so that new 
■i 8 sion..riea may be sent who are eager to goT" 

Supplementing this I endose a oojy of our fin in cl al statement for F lauary 
first showing that our appropriations.for year are #2,999,615. To* rd 

meeting these appropriations we h ve reoalTe^^,ror^ia first ten moiths of the cu-'^t 
yfrir #1,216,481, lo.-vlng still to be Frovlded^,785,064. L t year our net Income 
from endowment funds, annuiUos, etc. was #466,690. If we should receive that same 
amount this year, it would leave to be provided from the churc.ies, ^en's sodwties, 
IndlviaualB, ate., between F bruary 1 and Mar(* 51, 1956, a sum “ 

other words, we mat receive more in these two months thm we received In the 
preceding ten. The amount received last year from living sources in toe last two 

Xbe B.-v* Hugh T. Kerr, B. D. - 2, 

febru^ry 19, 1955 

Bonth* w-B ♦ It will be neCesSiLry, cocordin^y. to receive an 

increase daring these tiro monthe of $ o^er March and Anril nr i 

if the year i, to be closed vithout addltional^Sioitr 

Bhat »e cant to do, of course, ie to restore the 20 per cent 
reciucUon of adssionaiy eal irles just as soon as we can. This ^ 

u^esa the churches not only .eet the budget for this year, ^ch prortd^ Sy 

be 5®sto^* ^ but increase their gifts so that the sraaries caj 

be lastored, in part at least, beginning April first, 

u n Besting of the Christian Council in Japan an offici^a of 

the Cepartaent^Eto cation, repr-raenting the Minister of Education, said to ^ 
the Japanese Christian loaders and the missionaries who were pre..nt. "The 
Government is belpl^s «hen it comes to changing the spirit and psychology of the 
* 0 “ religionists should not wait and take the lead from the Govaniment 
but shoiad lead ^t on your own iniUutive and in accordance with your own faith 
and convictions. The question is as to whether our Church^sf faith and 
oonvicUone will respond to such a summons as this, coming not from Japan only 
hut from each nation. r 

I don*t Icnow just what additional material you would like In 
preparing the ststesuwit, but please let me know of any help th«t *e can give. 

Ever a'-'-iCtion tely yours. 

Riidi diW 

Suppl0*e“tlJ56 this, I enclose a copy of our financial statement for February 
jst, showing that our appropriations for the current year are $2,971,618. Toward 
meeting these appropriations we have received from living sources for the first ten 
0)nth3 of the current year $1,216,481, leaving stiU to be provided $1,755,137. We 
estimated at the opening of the year that we would receive from income on endowment 
funds, legacies, etc., $507,413., and we estimated a probable saving in the appro¬ 
priations of $75,000, a total of $582,413. This would leave to be provided from the 
churches, women's societies, individuals, etc., between February 1st and “arch 3l8t, 
1935, the sum of $1,172,724. The amount received last year from living sources in 
the last two mouths was $906,846. It will be necessary, accordingly, to receive an 
Increase during these two months of |265,873 over March and April of last year if 
the year is to be closed without additional deficit. 





to CO rH 

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' <0 CM ^ CO to C' to 


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The following table shows the receipts on the field by countries and in total. There 
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The following table gives a comparison of the missionary staff, showing gains and los; 



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Hadley has prepared the following table: He says of it: 


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1920 1930 1920 1930 1920 1930 1920 1930 

I I 1 I I I I 






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CM to 





Hovemter 11,1938 

Dear Dr.Speer:- 

Your note of October 6,1938 reached me while we were 

in Panhala,! read this to the Mission and all were delighted to 
have some word from you and about you. 

Having seen your home in Lakeville,when the Lakeville 

Conference was held,I have a mental picture of it.I can well 
imagine how beautiful this must have been during the autumn days. 

I enclose herewith a copy of a letter to friends 
and colleagues regarding our Annual Meeting. 

With every good wish for Mrs.Speer and yourself. 
Sincerely yours. 

rhe Onion Training College, 
Afcmednagar, India, 

November 10, 1938, 


Bear Friends and Colleagues:** 

We have just returned from the Annual Meeting of the Mission 
which was held at Panhala from Oot.27th to November 9th.Exc6pt for 
the last two or three days the weather was wonderful.The last days 
brought rain and mist and mud,but everyone was cheerful through it all. 

There was the usual PrciJission Conference,The Conference 
itself was unusual.The special guest speaker this year was Hev.H.J. 
Strickler.D^.of the Punjab ittssion.His four addresses centred around 
the theme,"The Chri8tian,His Message and His TitneB8».Be8ides Dr. 
Strickler we had the great political leader of the back-ward classes 
Dr.Ambedkar.He positively amazed us all.He came into the place of 
meeting,dressed as Indian leaders do dress.He had in his a laree 

leather-bound,gtlt-edged copy of the Bible,having a dozen or more 
pieces of paper to indicate the places of the references he planned 
to use and then he proceeded to give us one of the deepest studies 

Ifessage that any of us had ever heard.His main question 
was"What was Jesus Message to His Timea*?He spoke of Jesus as^being 
in politics up to his neck" and maintained as Jesus really was the 
first to give us the message of non-resistance,etc.His entire approach 
was from the stand-point of a leader of a party, endeavouring to find 
something to help his community.He did not give the Ir^ression that 
he was attracted to Jesus because of what Jesus could do in the way of 
cleansing from sin and in the way of being a great moral and spiritual 
dynamic.Neither did he give an indication of an eairly profession of 
faith as a Christian.In the afternoon we viaA what was really a forum 
and he was superby in the way he answered many questions.With reference 
to his own politiceil position he made it clear that hhe success of 
demooraey turned on there being more than one strong party and kh he 
felt that he was serving in trying to build up a party of opposition. 
Dr.Ambedkar spent the night with us as our guest and had many talks 
with many persons.Before he left he expressed his appreciation of 
his pleasure at being with us and indicated that we and he were not 
so far apart.As mayfy be mcptwisMl expected there were many Indian8''in 
his train**.He went to Nlpani for a big meeting and was drawn in state in 
a cart pulled by 72 bullocks. Besides Dr.Ambedkar we had Dr.J.B. 

Neir of the India Council,who spoke in detail of the visit of the 
Board's Deputation soon to be in India, 

This visit of the Deputation is looming large on the horizons 
of the three India Mission.As you may be aware the Board's Deputation 
will include Dr.J.LJ)oods,Miss(xertrude Sohulz,Dr.P.K.Emmons,MisB 
Frame from the China Council.and Dr.B.A.Odell.Most of these will be in 
attendance on the Madras Meeting of the enlarged international Missionar 
Council.The Deputation will visit the Stations of our Mission in January 
after which the Deputation will meet privately for two or three days. 
Then there is to be Regional Conference at Panhala.This will last 
four days and the deoisions taken at this Conferenoe will have the 
force of decisions taken at regular Annual Meetings.An all-India 
Conference is to be held some^ere in April after which the Deputation 
will leave for Iran.our own Dr.R.H.H.Goheen has been invited to ao- 
oompany them to survey the Medioal Work in Iran. In preparation 
for the Conferenoe Studies of Work have been undertaken by the different 
IhssionB.Our own Study has gone to many foolscap pages.The Board's 
topes are that there will be changes made.To quote from their letter 
on the subject-•Pruning improves the product". 

Page 2. 


Oiere will /be raore than one Deputation in India this year, 

AS a result all the India Idsaione feel that they are*on the spot", 
jjy uncle,Dr•A.H»Kepler,ExeoutiTe Secretary of the Church of Christ in 
Chinajis coming to the Madras Conference and we are expecting that 
iie and a company of very fine Chinese Christians will visit us here 
in Ahmednagar. 

As the great subject at Madras will be the Church,so the 
big subject at Panhala was the Church and the Relation of the Mission 
thereto»A paper was presented from the Executive Committee of the 
^uroh Council»The burden of the Council’s proposals is that all 
members of the Mission should become members of the Church Council 
and that the Church Council should as muoh do all the work now being 
carried on by the Mlssion.There seems to be no desire to follow the 
North India Missions in their Joint Committee arrangements»The present 
Moderator of the church Council is MT* G.Y.lfcses who is known to many of 
youtllhe Secretary is Rev«M,R,Ra8te of the Sanatorium Church and the 
Treasurer is the faithful S.S.Chavan of the T.C.M,3ohool,Ratnagiri.The 
Church Council proposals were presented by the Rev.Yishvasrao Anandrao 
Satralkar who never appeared to better advantage than at Panhala this 
yeamr.Committees were appointed to work out a possible arrangement 
with the Church Council,the proposals to come up for discussion at 

the regional Conference at Panhala in January. Now let me move 
rapidly and ooneisely over certain matters in which you will be 

•Ehe lihharashtra mss s^^rvey Report was before us in part. 

Rev.and llrs.W.R.Dyon have been working with the Secretary of t}»e Nationa 
Christian Council and Mts.Whitaker on the preparation of this report. 

The out-»standlng emphasis of the report was on the training of an 
Increasingly large number of workers of different grades.The Mission 
took favourable action on the report. You will probably receive a 
detailed report later on. 

You will be pleased to know that the Board has at last 
approved of the plan of having one Treasurer for the three India 
idssions.The name of the Treasurer-designate is Mc.Prentloe of the 
Allahabad Christian College and the time for our full participation 
in the Inter-lQ.s8ion Business Of floe, Bombay, is April,1940. 

You are always interested in officers,Committees,etc. 

Officers were chosen as followB:-Dr*R.C.Richardson,presldent,-a token 
or act of appreciation on the eve of his retirement from service; 
3eoretary,-Dr.J»L»Cfoheen;Trea8urer-Mr.Harry ¥.Brown;Board’8 Attorney- 
Rev.M.W.Strahler.The Executive Committee members are-Dr.J.L.Ooheen, 
Chairman,Dr.R.H.H.aoheen,Mr*3trahler,Miss Freeman and the under-signed. 
Chairman of Departmental Committees are-Eduoation-liir. R.R.H.Goheen, 
EvangeliBtlo-ReT«F.O.Conser:and Medloal-Dr&A.L.JadhaT.Nlpanl. 

Of course you will want to know about transfers.Here they 
are,—»iirsoE.W.3imp8on was transferred to Khlhapur;Rev.and MTs.W.H.Lyon 
were transferred to Islan^ur,especially with a view to make possible 
for them to apply much of what they have learned to the potential 
situation there;Rev.and Mts.F.O.Censer were transferred from Ratnagiri 
to Vengurla and Rev.V.A.Satralkar was made the person-in-oharge of 
this DistrioUThe Mission felt that it was quite desirable to make 
It possible for both Mf.Conser and Mt.Satralkar to exercise their 
unique gifts.It would surprise you how frequently Mt.Satralkar has 
been called upon to come to the assistanoe of groups of Christians 
who ma y be passing through periods of great was 
also decided that Rev.H.G.Howard should return to Kbdoli to take 
over the work of the station until the return of Rev.and MTs.R.A.Wilson 

Page 3 

The Miasion took action,recognizing the particular gifts and tai(*ntB 
of was decided that he was to he in ohfw of the 
production ^d distribution of literature for the entile Lssion 
areajthat were to be placed at the disposal of the newlv 

re-organized and r^abilltated Bombay Tract and Book Socilty-^d that 
ills sertrices were to be placed at the disposal of the United Seoioth.i 
College,Poona for special lectures was also decided thl± 
return from furlough lir,and lirs.j.a,Kincaid be in oharL of the Sohooi^^ 
there for "a long term'to use the phrase whioh found ill way ilto ^ 
regarding them.They will giwe much time to stidy 
while at home.Wlth reference to the Esther Patton School—oission^v- 
less since the marriage to Mr.Moses of Ittss C.Graoe Been—wan ^ 

Indianlzation.Uiss R.mthen being placed in 
full is hoped that another person—cither Indian or unn- 

Boonomios.may be seoured.Mise Mathen has done 
quite well*?ith reference to Dr.and Ifcs.irapp,the JtLssion decided that 
they ^e to return to Kolhapur with special reference to the Distliot^* 
Work.It was not toe intention of the MissioH that Dr.Napp should 
serre the local ^urohes in Kolhapur as their Stated Supply or Pastor 
as much m be did during his last term.Eeither was it the Lsirrif the 
Mission t^t Mrs.israpp should resume the responsibility for the Home 
Bep^tment of toe Esther Patton Sohool.Rev.Ld MTs.j.LsIL^ colTLue 

no word from Dr .Norma P.Dunntng.Dr.M. Timothy 
work and tmder the oareful management of Miss P.Sohafer ^ 
tWs Hospital is the only Hospital tit toe Mission to remain oonsistlLly 
in the black*.Tto Mission had oontinued Miss Schafer as the Business 

this Hospital and she will have the foil responsibility 
for the finances,even if Dr.Dunning returns. I should have * 

added another sentence above,-the Bombay Tract and Book Society 

has been TOved to Bombay and Miss E.Moreland has consented t* stay 
on in India for one full year to endeavour to put in full and 
complete order the affairs of the Sooiety. 


Another matter that will interest the Ifission-pandits now 
on furlo^h is the re-organization of the lasslon.You will be pleased 
to know that the corporate mind" seems to be orystalizing to the point 
wnere an Executive Secretary with large powers will be accepted,that 
Seoreta^ to be the present Secretary .Dr. John L.aoheen.The mssion 
approved of toe inclusion of an estimate for the Seoretary's Office. 

In fact Dr.Goheen had the unique experience—for Secretaries of the 
mesion--to have a Clerk working with him at Panhala and the"Meherban 
Saheb ,to use the title given Dr.Goheen when he was in the service of 
phalkaranjt State, aocon^llshed muohJ)r»Goheen is also Chairman of 
me Bombay Representative Christian Council and one of toe representa¬ 
tives of the Mission on the Indian Counoll.Dr.Goheen is inclined to 
groan at all this, especially when he thinks of ;(!iils Distriot.This 
year the Cpheens have carried Islampur as well as Sangll Distriots. 

So those of you at home should begun to establish"that-mind-aet" 
that will make you favourably inclined to a new order-of-things. 

Another matter that will interest you is the renewal of the 
request to toe Board for permission to sell the Church property in 
Kolhapur and use the proceeds towards building a Church, to be known 
as the TTilder Memorlal,on Cosqpound No.l,on condition that the 
Plrst and Second Churohes unlte.You will be pleased to learn that 
union seems nearer than ever.Re/Dr.Robert P.Wilder Dr Speer recently 
wrote as follows:-"He was a good man and there have been few men whs 
tove wielded toe influence of toe world during the last fifty years 
that he wielded.He is another illustration of the old truth about toe 
weakness of toe great things of the world and the strength of the small 

Page 4* 

I tlilnk that letters whiohryou will receiTe from your //Z, 

friends in the Etasion will bear the news that the meeting this year 
iras one of the beat that we haTe ewer had.There was a marked abseno* 
of strain and the unity of the group seemed to be in prooeas of 
restoration.We had.we have,our problems.The Mission is quite oonoemed 
about the MiraJ situation.! shall not go into this.This problem will 
require the thought and earnest consideration of the Board's Denutation. 
You may do your part in your prayers. 

Panhala,except for the last few days,was at its superb best. 

Ihe air was wonderful and the views from the various bastions unsurpassai 
Oie birds were not much in evidence,but the •whistling-sohool-boy". the 
Ualabar thrush.still resides in the well.The Panhala dogs,present at 
every Annual Ifceting were constantly in evidence.Timmie was not in 
sufficiently good shape to mind them.The children, too,were to be seen 
and heard on every-side.They groused a bit,wondering why their elders 
had to sit so much on the front verandah of Mission House, thus making 
impossible their getting at the blaok**faoed monkeys who raced across 
the roof.Boweb Bruere Conser has a great imagination and entertained 
the children with some great tales.To show that the new day is at banri 
Conser had his radio-equipped Buiok on the camping place near the 
well.This was a favourite rendezvous for all and nine P.M.would see 
a number of persons sit in comfort in this Buiok to listen to the 
news broad-oast .Of course we dined as always in the bdg-dinning room 
in Belfry Cottage.The Curator has laid hands on the ancient land-mark 
and you will not find the old belfry outside.Our Indian guests dined 
with us and curry and rice figured frequently on our Menu.! regret 
to report that I gained 4 a result of the culinary ministrations 
of the ladies of Sangli btation.Sing,of course we did and much more 

than at the two or three previous Mission meetings.The Wooster crowd, 
filling one entire table,put up a big show one night.You should have sem 
and heard Hob and John Goheen sing.Boes your auditory memory bring 
back the voice and hearty laugh of John GoheenYMiss Proese,perched 
on a box or table,contributed with stories that delight. Mr. 
lyon was good as a presiding officer and constantly brought forth 
from the stores of rich experience,study and association that he 
has enjoyed during the part year or so in connection with the Maha¬ 
rashtra Survey,eto» The Mission is still mo tor-minded. It seems 
that everyone returning from the States brings a car.At present the 
most disreputable looking cards belong to the Franks,Kincaids and our¬ 
selves. Mire.Strahler landed this week,bringing a oar for Milton. 

We are wondering whether Br.lTorma is coming back to the M-ssion or 
whether she will marry a noted dominie from Pittsburgh. Peg Craig 
is finishing an intensive course in obstetrics in the J.J.Hospital, 

Bombay, and Mary Krug is doing the same at the Sassoon Hospital,Poona. 

How a line or two about the general situation,—the out¬ 
standing factor of the past year has been the intensification of the 
persecution of Christians.Followers of the Arya Samaj estimate that 
they have"Hindu-iBed*450 plus persons from our Mission area. In 
some places the persecution has been intense.The attitude of the Congres 
Covernment follows the line laid down by Mahatma Gandhi,viz.the 
mlnimizSwg or putting an end to what is oalled'proselytization*.Some¬ 
time ago I was in a building of a certain institution and I saw a 
large poster on the wall,which swnmed up in a few words the driving 
force of the movements now under way.The words—Svadeshi plus 
Svadharma equal Svatantrya.The whole was expressed as an algebraic 
equation.You may have heard,of course,that the Sholapur Settlement, 
where Mrs.Wright served for 15 years,has been taken back by the 
Government of Bombay and all the missionai’ies concerned have had to 
be placed elsewhere.There will probably be more development of this kind 

g oTSriSiLfX'nS 

you that he la not.The great iasue looming up la the oueation 

ihe Federal Government or Federation.i.e.thecaltuatioHLrrthe 

British provinces will unite with at least i of the Native States 
to form the Central tovernment.The Governor-General has recently 
returned from leave in England and it is expected that he will nut 
forward every effort to effect the estahishmenfe of Federation.The 
Native States are much in the picture these days and some of them 
are having hard time due to the estahlishment of Congreas-minded- 

establishment of democratic 

institutions in the States.Travanoore is having a particularly hard 
time of it.Tlie Congress Party have not as yet made clear iuat what hhoi- 
attitude will be in the matter of Federation. Dr.Wiley's friend 
Barrister Savarkar.President of the Hindu Mdhasabha.ia in favour of the meanwhile,in the different Provinces,acts I^enaLad 
and measures taken which delimit or affect the work of Mssi^a 
The Bombay Provincial Council has recently passed a Med^ll Prlotitiou^w, 
Bill which may affect British and American Physicians coming t^Indil? 
You realize,do you ^t.that a number of Austrian and German Physicians 
have come to India.The Bombay Government have also given indication 

L.C.P.S.qualifioations,this intention 
or policy affecting o^ Medical School in Kiraj.May I add here that 
no one on this side of India that I have met believe that the big 
Jfedieal College,projected for Allahabad,will ever be establishedlThe 
sol^mes for the over-hauling of education are numerous.The Verdha 
Scheme has been much discussed.Putting it very briefly the changes 
pojeoted are these,-—^proving the quality of the priiuary schools: 
increasing the peruod of instruction by three yearsjmaking Hindustani 
compulsory in the 5th and 6th Standards; the intriduction of “basic 
hand-craft ;the re-vamping of the courses for training colleges.etc: 
fee possible redjiotion of grants to Mission fact 
Dr.JoM laokenzie anticipates such changes as will make it imperative 
that in the future Christian ifission will have to give most of their 
attention to the education of the Christian community. While 
Christian Missions are passing through the varied experiences due to 
a rising tide of nationalism the movements towards church unity are 
progressing slowly.The United Church of Northern India held the 
meeting of the Assembly in Bombay reeently.Dr.John Mackenzie was 
elected tederator and our own Rev.A.Rallia Ram,Allahabad,was eldoted 
otated Clerk«However,full and complete unity has nob been achieved 
in I.lah^ashtra as yet.Some of the Provinoeial Governments have indicated 
their intention to forbid the sale of property for religious purposes, 
this measure being aimed,it seems,against Christianity. India,along 
wiuh other nations,passed through a period of deep anxiety in connection 
with the war.I heard the Bishop of Nasik preached the Sunday after the 
peace of minich".The service was attended by many military men,all of 
whom had been under orders of mobilization. The ielief was most marked 

A brief personal note and then*I shall take your leave“-_ 

Bie Training College is getting on.This year we have 20 some students, 
among others,from the City of Bombay. Alice,as you know, is a 
Sophomore at Mount Holyoke. Mary is finishing the Senior Year at 
Nor thfield, living with her grant-parents,Dr .and Mrs .E. Fair bank. Lj’-dia 
18 at Woodstock,having a good time,as the School bill to hand this 
evening shows.The bill contains a charge for 2 broken windows.Ted is 
also there,not quite as well as a boy his age should be/Mrs.Wright 
and I are keeping the home-fire burning—-you know it gets quite cold 
in November and December. This letter carries our Xmas Greetings and 
New Year's Wishes. 


Soma Tentative Consideratlona RegArflIty; TTuteanltla* 

The problem of the relation of missions to government Is one aspect 
of the larger problem of the relation of Church and State, This problem 
has never been solved. Tlio nearest approach to a solution is expressed in the 
phrase "a free church amt a free state™, but this formula itself leaves innu¬ 
merable and difficult problems still to ba dealt wlfli. And the fonmla does 
not cover our missionary problem at all, Ulsslona are not free. They are 
not free as regards the state from ^diich the missionaries go, as indicated, 
to take one exanqple only, in passport requirements, A missionary cannot 
leave his country for the mission field without a passport^shlch his government 
may or may not grant him. They are not free as regards the country to which 
they go. Our missionaries are not allowed to enter India without the permit 
of the British Government. They are allowed to hold land in China only with 
the specific consent of the Chinese Government idiloh refused it until it was 
conceded by treaty stipulation between the Government of China and the Government 
of the United States. ^ Sn. -itu . 

The problem of indemnity ;diloh we are considering is a part of this 
problem of relation of missions to governments. It involves a payment by one 
government to another government on account of the missionary or the missionary’s 
relatives ^o are conosmad. What should this relation be? 

Two extreme positions are conoslvable. 1. Ulssionarles might be 
officially allied to government. This was the ease with the chaplains of the 
East Indian Conqoany. They were appointed and supported by the Cospany. Both 
the Coiqiany and the Indian people so understood. We may dismiss this position 
although there is a great deal in it worth careful consideration, 2. Hiss Iona— 
rles might bo vrtiolly dissociated from government. This would msan, in our ex¬ 
isting political order, that they would giw up the citizenship of their native 
country, become naturalized in the country of their mrk, be amenable to its laws 
and enjoy only the rights which their new citizenship would confer. Dr. VerbeCk 

- 2 - 

gou^t to do this in his o ® oase in Japan and Dr, David Troobull did it in 
Chile and did hia great mA there as a Chilean subject. There is a great 
deal in this view also that is worthy of consideration but we may dismiss it 
too. Missionaries generally would be unwilling to adopt it and it would 
be praotioable only where naturalization is allowed aol where a reasonable 
degree of security and justice is assured. Otherwise political intervention 
from without would be pretty sure to follow any outrage or notorious wrongs. 

Bven, however, if this second heroic course were to be followed the problem 
of relations of missionaries and governments would remain. Only,the Oovernment 
would be the adopted government of the mission field. There would still 
arise the question of idiat use the missionaries would make of their civil rights 
ui^er their new government and how they vuuld act in the event of loss of property 
or loss of life. They could theoretically solve this question in advance and 
once for all by adopting the non resistant and passive principle of claiming no 

'■ 4 - 

rlghts and suffering all things. It is interesting to note that sometimes 
Paul pursued this course and sometimes he did not but^asserted boldly the pre¬ 
rogatives of his Roman oitlzenshipi from vhioh it would appear that he acted 
from ezpedlenoy, chooeing the course which seemed to him most favorable to his 
cause,and that he did not hold to any^idealistio and theoretical oourse as alone 

I doubt, accordingly, whether there is any general theoretical principle 
by ^ich we can easily determine the question of indemnities. We shall have 
to consider it carefully in its vsrioxia aspects as related both to the Board and 
to the Individual missionary, and with regard both to property and life, and to 
reparation and punishment. 

The first step is to inquire vdiether any element of principle is Involved 
and can be made clear. As a matter of principle, accordingly, we would ask 

. Should the Board accept indemnity for property? 1 see nothing wrong 




in prloelpls in the aaeeptaaoe of snch indoanlty adequate to replaoe the 
property lawlessly taken or destroyed. Those nho hare taken or destroyed 
snch property should he required hy the laws to make restitution to those liio 
hare been wronged and it is clearly right for the latter to reoeire the re¬ 
stitution. In the case of the Board, noreoTer, it is clear that the Board is 
in the position of trustee of the property destroyed. It nny be argued that 
the real interests of the trust asks it wiser to inour the loss. That, however, 
is a question of expediency to lAich we shall cone in a isoment. The point now 
is to sake it clear that it is not wrong in principle for the Board to accept 
fair and equitable ii^simity for property loss. 

2. Hay the Board, as a natter of principle, aooept indemnity for loss 
of lifeT We need not consider this,as both the Board and the United States 
Sovermsnt have already given a negative answer, on the ground, to nose but 
one, that the Board has not suffered in the death of a missionary a loss which 
can be expressed or indemnified by money. 

3. Is it ri^t in principle for a widow or other relatives aotually depsnr- 
dent upon a missionary whose life has bera lawlessly sstorifioed, to accept in¬ 
demnity representing the actual loss Inourredt The Oovernraant has always d^ 
olared that it is and the governments where suoh losses have occurred have reo- 
ognised such claims. In the esse of Major Mirle, the American Consul killed 
in Teheran, both the United States and Persia acted in accord with this view, 
llajor IiArle, however, was not a missionary. But if it was right in principle 
in his case. It is right in principle in the case of the missionary. If it is 
wrong in the case of a missionary it must be on the ground not of principle but 
of o:5)edlenoy and wisdom for the sake of the missionary cause. 

The inquiry suggests itself, however, as to idiethar that may not be 
wrong in principle in connection with the missionary enterprise which is not 

wrong in the sphere of commercial and political relations. I do not ^Ink so. 

- 4 . 

Tharo nay ba «ld» aifferenoM in the natter of ejq.edienay but surely not In 
the natter of principle. iBiat nakes principle principle is its cAsolnte 
universality. what is in principle right or wrong in religion and in 
aries is in principle ri^t or wrong in any other sphere and relationship. ijA 
it is not possible to see any difference in principle between the duty of those 
*0 have wrought destruction and loss to repair that destruction and loss to the 
Board in the ease of property and to a widow and her orphan children in the ease 
of their bread winner. 

It is clear that this view oan be met by the contention that an indemnity 
whether for property or life is wrong in principle and nnat be foregone. But 
thai this contention would have to be carried oonsistantly through both aa to 
Board and Individual, both as to property and as to life. Aikl it can only be 
maintained as a principle by a theory of missionary life which makes it supra-civil 
like the position of the llunkards in Pennsylvania in the tine of the Revolution 
#10 were non participant in the life of the state, wto asked for no proteotlon 
or seourity and asserted no rights. If wo are not prepared to go to this 
length then I do not see how we can avoid the oonoluslons whloh have been stated 
as to the matter of principle. 

There is, however, a special aspeot of the #iole question #iloh needs 
to be considered, namely, the question of the actual liability of the governments 
of the mission fields for the destruotlon of property or life for which ialaamity 
might be given. If mobs or individual persons in the Pnlted States destroyed 
the property or life of Chinese subjects would the Cnlted States recognise any 
demand on the part of China for indesmlty from the United States Oovemment, or 
would it refer the applicants to the oourts for redress? It will bo replied 
that in the case of China or of some other countrles the principle of aortttt- - 
territoriality enters as a differentiating consideration. That is a true answer 
and as a matter of fact I think the only indemnity oases idiioh have arisen in the 
past SO years have been in China and Persia. 

It is enou^ fo point out now that 

- 5 - 


there 1. no difference in principle in the matter which I c«i diecem beteeen 
«ceptin« extraterritorial right, in the case of p„,perty and in the case of 
life. If it is wrong or ri^t in princ^le to nse these right, in one case 
it is wrong or ri^t also in the other. The missionarte. have never hesit*. 

ted to nse then in the case Of property «d protection. They have not a. a 

rule ashed for gonhoat. although one ha. Jn.t been sent to Haln«i without the 

protest of the ndseion, hut they have used thna ri^t. in many ways, and the 

iMg Esien niaaionarie. have even eonslalned becauae the Board would not uae 
them to protect property owned by Chinese. 1 do not see on ground of 
principle we can demur to the govemnenfs asldag iadentity for Mrs. Byers 
i*il. we accept without demr the ruthless execution, of Oeneral Chien of 
^ich Dr. Lowrie write, and the despatch of a consul and a naval officer and 
a gunboat to Hainan. if it 1. right to accept and even to urge the latter 
idierein is the former wrongT Might not ground bo found for maintaining 
that the former was the more Christian in principle and , viewing its probable 
effect, the more expedient also? 

It will be noted that wo have spoken of "accepting indemnity." it 
may be uhed blether the conclusion is the same as to "sedclng iniemnity". 

Is it right in principle to go to law, or to govemmsnt to demnd it r t .n 

prevent the wrong that threater^d loss? If it is rl^t in principle to accept 


ia ^right in principle to seouxw provided the means used are right aid. 
Chrietiaal And provided they do not in their effect work more ham to the 
oause than good. But here wo pass over into the ijaeetion of ezp^ienoy rather 
than principle. 

lot us consider, then, the issue of expediency with regard to the two 
types of indemnity idii ch ws have been unable to reject as a matter of principle, 
1, It nay not bo wrong for the Board and individual missionaries to 

accept indemnity for property less but is it wise to do eoT Mould it not bo 

. fi - 


better to take Jojrfttlly the spoUlag of our goods, to resist not eTll, to let 
any BBn who would taka our coat hare our oloke also? Shese are serious qas». 
tloaa. But ^ther we rightly or wrongly apprehend the Sermon on the Mount, 
the fhct is that we bellewe that (lod*s 1mm of Justice am right ought to be 
the lan of human society and that nan should be obliged to conform to these 
laws, and that theft and fraud and arson and wioleaoe ought not to be allowed 
or condoned. But while this is our conviction and practice and tlm policy 
of our Government, it is stUl open to us to act with discretion and forbearw 
anoe and wisdom; to forgive and submit when that will help our oauae and to 
require and accept restitution «en that is best. we may err in judgment 
but we do that in a ttousand things. And it is hard to determine when we 
have erred and when we have not. Would it have been wiser in China to 
have taken no property indemnity after the Boxer Dprlsing? soma might 
say »jreo» but the great majority answered tlmn and would answer now "So." 

When recently the Persian authorities wanted to take the Tabrl* Girls* sohool 
property for a roadway without indemnity and the Kiss ion protested and sou^t 
the he^ of the United states Government to prevent the spoliation but offered 
to sell the property at a proper valuation, the Persians oomplained of their 
mean spirit,but the Mission and the United States Governnent felt that acquit 
esoenoe would have been wrong and foolish, it would have won no lu^ 

good^and would have invited greater injustice. Jtidgli« from the procedure of 
the Missions and the individual missionaries in the pest,one would oonclude 
that the general sentiment is in support of the firm, just and ten^rate malrr- 
tenanoe of property ri^ts and duties. 

2, But as to the second matter, is a distinotlon to be made as to 
Indemnity for life? Coualderlng that it is not wrong in principle for the 
dependents of the deceased to accept indsnmity, is it nevertheless to bo laU 


- 7 - 


dom as a rule of action that they should never do so haoause of the effects o|^ 
the exaction of such inderanitlee upon the nation or ooBnnmity from 4iioh they 
are taken? It la difficult to see theoretically any difference beteaen 
the effect in the case of property and in the case of life. Indeed in soma 
oases the Indemnity for life Is at once recognised as sentimentally, morally 
and eeonomlcally appropriate ^en indeimlty for property nay bo questioned. 

The loss of property may easily ocour without governmental ooiq>lioity but 
usually loss of life comes only shen as in the case of Uajor Ubrle anl 
Mr.. Byers there has been politloal remlssness or liability. If the harmful 
effects of indemnity are due to the levying of the amount paid acm a 

greater amount on the community, there would seem to be no difference in 
titslr effeots due to the object. The levy is the same in its oonsequeme 
eoononically whether it be for property or for life. ^ tf wo turn from 
theory to experience it is not easy to draw satisfactory oonoluslons. 

can not see that the effect of the i>aynsnt of Indemnity for Hr. 
habaree's life in Persia was as much a o^se of con^lalnt and ill will as 
our unwillingness to surrender the Sirls* School property in Tabriz. There 
is oonfliotii^ testimony as to the effeots of property and life indemnities 
after the Boxer nprlslng in China,and too nany oonfliotlng elements entered 
into that situation. But it would be desirable to gather from the well 
infomed missionaries of that day some expression of their visas as to idi»> 
ther a sure difference of effect resulted from the two types of Indemnity and, 
if so, how and ^lereln, sinoe these indencitlss were not generally levied 
in detail upon the comnnaities. In Hainan it is hard to form a Judgment, 
as to effects, for while the China Counoll of the Board disapi>roved of any 
life Indeimlty there, the United States Qovemment nevertheless exacted it. 

The Chinese willingly paid it and the China Council and the Hainan mission 

- 8 - 


pressed so urgently for politloal action of the United states to seonre 
the establishiMat of order and t^ punishment of crime that it would not 
bo possible to^npraets the effecVof the one Item of the Indemnity paid 
to Mrs. Byers. 

It is Tory eonceirable that the exaction of a laxgBjjf indemnity for 
life might in some cases hare a bad effect and the surrender of such indemnity 
a good effect but several considerations must be kept in mini. 

1. The United States Government may as in many oases of its own 

accord require Indemnity Its requirement will annul,as to the effect on 
the minds of the people from i*om it la exacted, any good effect of 

the refusal of the Indemnity by the dependent relatives. 

2. The demand for protection and order by the Board and Mission 
may work more hardship and pressure on the oonmnanity and more resentment 
from the government than a reasonable Indemnity. 

3. An indemnity may be the best and surest aid most powerful method 
of restoring order and assuring future proteotlon. 

4. A refusal on the part of dependent relatives to accept Indenmlty 
or a policy of the Board to discourage It Involves the vary question lAloh 
emerged in the oase of Mrs. Byers, namely as to her support? If the Board 
discountenances such Indemnity and In consequence dependent relatioB are In 
need. Is the Board Justified In usli^ mission funds to replace the indemnitys 
thus transferring the responsibility for Indemnity from those 1*0 were guilty 
of the crime and liability and laying it upon missionary contributions,surely 
not made for such purpose. Or If It is held that such expeiditurs Is entlre)r 
proper, then idiy is it limited to the case of missionaries idio come to a vlolmt 
end? TIhy is it not equally appropriate In the oase of missionaries dying of 
disease or even breaking down and coming home? If the Board supports Mrs. Byers 

- 9 - 

on the scale of e^nse iSiioh she finds neoessary, shy should it not do 
the same for Mrs. Eay Smith whoso hushaad died of oholsrat Is there not 
indeed a stronger claim on mission funds in the ease of a missionary widow 
1*0 oan not claim any Indemnity for her husband's death than on the part of 
another Ao oan do so but is deterred from accepting it? 

The problems idilch have been oonsldarad here are not easy i 
have no disposition to answer them dogmatically, one's only desire is 
that the fundamental isene^hall be ol^rly seen and carefully studied. 

And his fear is that we may miss some of thAw^ Snr^auj|' appropriate in¬ 
demnity for dependent widows and orphans oannot work effects any more dis- 
^Inot than those i*loh would seem likely to result from the activities of 
the United States oonsulfs in Hainan, acting under the urgent request of 
our Board and alsBlonarles for the reestablishment of order and security, as 
these sctlvities are described in Dr, lowrie's letter of April 22, 1925. 

Such eeHvlties ana inevitable and proper in the case of governments 1m.,lA. 
piutitive well as indmniflcatoxy, I see far more difficulty smd 
possibility of evil effects In our being involved in punitive measures 
than la the acceptance of rig^teona and proper imlamnlty i*ether for property 
or for life. And yet some of those who deprecate indemnity have felt no 
difficulty in pressing for other government action i*ich would not be others 
wise than punitive. There oig^b bo ^ punishment but that is for govemmests 
to infliet, not for us to ask. 

Personally one mlg^t like to see missions and missionaries lifted clear 
akove all political relationships, but this is an inqwssible ideal, We are 
in this world and vreighii^ the whole matter I do not see that it is wrong in 
principle nr*fi i tt nils inexpedient in praotiee to accept indemnities in the 
form and on the terns set forth in this statement. 


".'hat, lastly. I 3 the right and positive principle by which our work and 
course of action should be governedv It Is the principle of unselfish love and 
service. We may Infringe or hinder this principle by our mode of life, by the 
kind of houses we live In, by our failure to learn the language, by our 111 temper, 
by our race feeling, by our setting up the mission as a foreign superior body, by 
glorifying our own country and depreciating others, by making schools and hospitals 
appear as financial or secular agencies rather than agencies of service and love, 
and In many other ways. We cannot atone for any failure In any of these regards by 
an occasional action regarding Indemnity. 

ProeMant Oheaanan A. Herrick, 
Oirard Coll»e(;e, ■hila>l8lphia, 

Viy 'leer Cheosnaa; 

I receive 1 yesterday your letter aidreesed to Hre. Roye and 
reyself and encloee herewith a copy of a note whicli I have just sent to lire. 
Boys. If '"8 cannot got together on some such statement as this I doubt 
vhether ve can got together at all. 

Kr, Severance told me yesterday of his strong convictions, of which 
I think ho has opokan to you and perhaps is »'lanning to v-rite, and I think that 
probably there are others who share his views, and still cOiers w'noso views would 
not go ae far as his but who could not taka t)ie absolute passivist and nonjurist 
attitude whloh I understand some others take. 


what it says and 

think, the statement as I have drawn it ot'vors fully,both in 
in what it omits, the five positions in your letter. 

•jver cordially youre 

•TiuialO, 1927 
nr. Speer 
Mro. Hoys 

yeetorday i)i-. ITorrlclc’s latter addressed 
the subject of inaaranltles to be oonslderad by the Conmlttoe 
aproin’^s'’ to deal with this euestion on Ponday, Juno 20th at 
Judge from what Ir. Horrlok has written, and also said, that 
you and me to agree If posBlble on some statement. 

to you and me on 
that the Board 
12:15, I 
he would like 

? lupine that 4f we attenpt at this time to lay down ,an absolute 
theoretical principle wo may find agreement impossible. i wonder If wo 
could agree In some such statement as the following, wfuch Is an adactation 
of the reocnnendatlon presented at Shanghai by the ooraraittoe of which Mr Chnrleo 
p. Johnson was Oli^rman, but on which, after socm discussion, the gvalLtlL 
Conference decided to take no action at all. 

It has been and is the eolioy of the Board neither to claim a>T to 

tb^w^d^ missionaries. The Board believes that 

the widow and children of a missionary who has lost his life by vloienos in 
missionary servioe should be provided for under the saiae arrangements of the 
Church as in the case of miss lonirles who died 'ron natural causns and that 
in all such cases it is the duty of the Church at tomo to seek to make its 
provision adequate to the need. 

. iOi regard to indemnity for property the Board believes that such In- 
demnl ty may be valid when mission proT-erty is taken over by governments or 
destroyed by reason of the responsible remissnass of governments, or when 
the circumstances are such that if It were a case of claim against the Aiuerloan 
government it would bo raoognizod as right. At the same time the Board does 
TOt lay down any general rule but believes that each case should be carefully 
dealt with by itself with reference to right Christian principles and to the 
effect of any action or non-aotlnn on the ml alon.ary cause. It would 
da’-reoate^any indemnity which would be levied on the inoocent or on the 
locality where the loss oeourred la any way that might injure the Chi-lstian 
cause, and neither Hlsslons nor Board should over be involved in jiunitlve 
notions for which Qovarnmsnts alone are resfonslble. 

could you assent to such a statement as this? 

Very cordially yours. 

CABLE address: 
roRCiGN Missions code 
A. S. C. Code. 4th Edition 


The Board of foreign Missions 



166 Fifth Avenue 


Madison Square branc 
P. O. Box No. a 

1^06 P-sbyterian Board of Foreign Missione. Sept. 17th. 

igOb, the following action was taken; 

"The Board has learned with regret that some of the relatives of the mis 
sionaries who were murdered at Lien-chou. China, are claiming indemnity for 
the lives of the martyrs and that this claim is creating a painful impression 
in ina and is doing harm to the cause of Missions, as the Chinese Govern¬ 
ment had assumed from the Board's action of November 21st. igoS. that while in¬ 
demnity for property would he received, no claim would be made for the lives 
that were lost. The part of the Board's action referred to was as follows 

for thfLtri^ort'rf^'re^fci^ Ves?r»" indemnity, it would only he 

not be estimated in dollars and cents." “ ^ Christ s sake should 

In the above action the Board, of course, spoke only for itself and the 
cause It represents, realizing that it has no right to speak for anyone else. 
Nevertheless it believes that the considerations that prompted its action are 
as morally operative upon the relatives of the missionaries as upon the Board, 
since they relate to the general welfare of the cause to which the mission¬ 
aries dedicated their lives. Where dependent relatives are involved, their 
claims should of course be considered, but in this case the Board believes 
Itself to be the only party that suffered pecuniary loss in the death of the 
missionaries at Lien-chou. Whatever may be the technicalities affecting the 
legal status of its rights, the Board's losses in the lives of these mission¬ 
aries were real and heavy and in equity should be acknowledged. In waiving its 
just claims for Indemnity for these losses, the Board acted from motives of 
disinterested friendship for China, of reverent regard for what it believed to 
be in accordance with the wishes of the dead, and of those high spiritual 
considerations that control the effort to make Christ known to the Chinese. 

The Board frankly concedes that it has no control whatever over the relatives 
of Its missionaries and that they are within their legal rights in taking such 
individual action as they may deem wise. It feels, however, that its relation 
to the missionary enterprise in China, of which the Lien-chou missionaries 
were a part, makes it proper for it to express the opinion that for those who 
suffered no financial loss in the massacre to obtain financial compensation 
therefor is to be deplored as inconsistent with the spirit which led the 
beloved martyrs to consecrate their lives to missionary work. 

The Board directed that copies of this action be sent to the relatives 
concerned, to the Secretary of State, the Chinese Minister, and to any others 
that may be interested." 


Harold A. Hatch 
79 Leonard St., 
Hew York City. 


Hovember 13, 1925. 

Dr. Hobert E, Speer, Secretary, 
Board of Foreign Klsslons. 

256 Fifth Ave., Hev/ York city. 

Dear or. Speer- 

statement '.Onr Lord, whom we serve in conn,onrbidsTsus?aln“LjLtlS 
the Eoissionanes at the froat," that l feel lustlfied in v^rii-^no- 
from ..enstalning adequately tie mlsslonfrLs^^rihe fro^t th^t ::u. 

Board is dangerously handicapping them. s-iieve that our 

mantion particularly China and the Hoslem world, it has 

wear °“® oommlssioners of the 

Ne^ East Hellef. and as a Trustee of the Amerioan College for - omen ircon! 
stMtinople, and I am convinced that the Missionary Boards in acquiescing in 
^ ® nullified, to a considerable de^ee 

lem ^fl^^ individual missionaries to bring Christ to the Uos- 

the I “°V^“ogGther surprised that it has proved Impossible for 

“°®^* *^® <^ 8 achings of the Sermon on the Mount when presented 
by institutions which support such unchristian policies. 

failure of the Board of Foreign Jiissions of the preeby- 
teriM Church to completely reject for Itself the unequal treaties with China 
s, I very nnich fear, going to hinder in a large measure the success of our 
great Cause in China, it is not anouf^i to point out that the pagan attitude 
of other countries toward China has in the case of our country been brightened 
by many friendly acts, as long as we keep our array and navy in China to pre- 
serve the pagan status quo. 

^“^888 0’^ Foreign Board oan make a clean breast of the matter 
repudiate for Itself utterly and entirely all these uneqtial treaties, and make 
its strongest appeal to our Government to do likewise, I think it would be wise 
to turn over our missionary enterprise in China to the local Chinese churches, 
and our si^jport take the form of contributions to these churches. 

I think that the attitude of the Congregational Church in re¬ 
spect to these unequal treati-s shows that it has learned from its bitter ei- 
perienoe in the Hear East. 

This letter may sound pessimistic. If so, I am sorry, be¬ 
cause I believe that whan the Christian Church rejects the philosophy that 
the and justifies the means and builds with the Christian Hettod upon the rook 
of the Christian Faith, it will conquer the world for its Master. 

Very sincerely yo\irs, 

(signed) Harold A. Hatch. 

° 0 r y 

:,:ardh 22, 1926. 

-r. rarold A. Hatch, 

79 Leonard Street, 

:few 'fork City. 

lly dear "r. Hatch; 

... , . montlis ago, in reply to a letter vaiioh I had sent you 

with reg^d to our Foreign Hissionarj- situation, you very kindly vrote raising 
some of the deeper nuestions of missionary policy with regard especially to 
the relation of missions to political problems in -Turkey ani China. i have been 
out in the field almost constantly this winter and there has been no op'.ortunlty 
until now to attempt to treat the problems which ^mu raise. 

Some of the -general issues involved I studied and discussed 
some years ap, in tv« volumes entitled 'H:issions in "odern wpstory" and in the 
ch^ter on iss ions a.nd Politics in another volume entitled "Cliristianity and 
the ITations. Heoent developments, however, have brought all these ouestions 
into a new focus and on a recent lioliday afternoon I seised the oprortunity to 
re-read your letter and to give a fresh consideration to the vtole problem. i 
should like to v.-rite out in this latter, though it will be at some length, the 
result of that afternoo.n's reflection. If I set these results .iown rather posi¬ 
tively it is not because I am .not very ready to review the whole question asradn. 
'' will help us in these matters except the truth and I .v. sa’tting forth 
all these vlev^s with no other desire except to find the truth. I shall be glad 
to have any error in these statements corrected. 

1- If the only point at issue is the matter of the injustice of 
"unequal treaties" forced upon China, in the first instance, a.nd o.nlv .malntdined 
later by force, the problem is not a difficult Che sole question .culd 
then be one of historical and political fact, '.’ere our Afflerlorji treaty of 185G 
a;id the later treaty of 1903, which define the rights of missionaries and of 
religious missionaries in China forced upon China? were they uneoual treaties? 
have tlisy bee i maintained by force? Che historic facts slaw that these treaties 
ware not forced upon China and that the provisions referred to have not been 
maintained by force, a.nd in the nature of their pi'ovlsions they are not unequal. 
Chinese in tlie United States enjoyed the rights which these treaties accorded 
to Americans in China, axoept in certain American states vrtilch limit the rights 
of aliens (in some cases Asiatics, in other cases all aliens) to own land, the 
conditions at the tiM these treaties v/ere irade arply justified them and neither 
Chinese nor foreigners sasv in them anytldng Inerji table or une lual or anything 
forced or constrained, Chey were designed rather to make conditions eoual in 
China artL the United States, a.nd tiiey were fieely entered into by China without 
any forcible constraint '..hatevor on oui’ part. Chose 'ciito denounce tj.ese treaties 
now as unequal or forced ai'e Ignoring the historic facts. 

It is true tliat a new psychology and ne\'. political conditions 
make it wise nav to revise these treaties. Che ne-w psychology clearly makes it 
desirable. It is not so clear tiiat the new political conditions juf-tlfy it, but 

- 2 - 

• r. J'arold A. '"atch 

on the whole, it v;ould seem wise and ri^t to revise the treaties making them 
clearly reoixarooal, as in the oasa of the new treaty with Siam, and securing 
in them the recognition of the inviolahle principles of universal religious 

Perhaps you have in mind, however, not the so-called toleration clauses 
but the tariff and extra territoriality provisions. I’hese latter are not mission¬ 
ary and missions do not need them and never have needed them, fhey ought to be 
-iven up by all foreigners v/henever Ciiina is ready to fulfill the duties which 
she could not fulfill v/hen she made the treaties in the first place and when these 
provisions so far from wronging China were recognised by China her.'elf as equit¬ 
able and necessary. They are not equitable, or just, or '.7ise, in any con^ietent 
State and they may be unwise even in China now, though she is far from being a 
competent State. At any rate, missionaries never asked for these provisions and 
have expressed tl^amselvos as very ready to forego the i'rjnunities which they embody. 

2 - Likav.'ise tlB question of the capitulations is a question of historic 
fact. The capitulations were not forced upon Txurkey from without, they were in¬ 
vented and established by Turkey herself as a necessary device for '-roviding a 
place in Turkey for Christian coniminitlas v;hioh were disallowed by the strict law 
of Islam, t.hen later, other foreigners, including missionaries, came to Turkey 
the capitulations v/ere the only legal contrivance of which Turkey could t’dnk to 
care for them. \.'hat was there in the capitulations vdiich was unCliristian? The 
lasvs of Islam were umistakably unchristian and inhunan and only beoai.^e tolerable 

in the modern v/orld, v/hsn a loop hole was opened throuj^ them by ineans of the oa- 
Tiitulationa xfeioh practically abrogated Islamic law in Turkey, in the case of 
Chi-istians, real or nominal. The massacres of Armenians were a clear and logical 
demonstration of the political conditions resulting from I'oslera lasv when the ca¬ 
pitulations were ignored. I cannot see that ttie murder of Armenians is Christian, 
v/hile tlie restraint of such murder by the capitulations or tliair principles is un- 
Christian. (See DBight Treaty Rights of American Missionaries in Turkey). 

3- Put the real problenoB are far deeper and more Uffioult than these. 
They call for anstvers to such ouestions as these; Is the state a wholly seculsur 
and commeroial institution, or does it have religious cijaracter and obligation^ 

If it does, must it discharge this in entire separation from all religious forces? 
and must religious forces keep absolutely aloof and separate from all civil rela¬ 

4- As to tlie first of tiiese ouestions, 1 hold unequivocally the doctrine 
of the 'ew Testament and of the Reformers, Calvin and Knox, that the ; tate is a 
divine institution, that it is under obligation to obey tiie law of Clffist, that 
Christ is not lord of individuals and the Church only but of tlie whole of human 
life and that the true business of the State is justice and rl^.teoucoess. (Thomp¬ 
son's "The Rivine Order of ''uman Society." Cairn's "Life of A. B. rtaccwan). I can¬ 
not see v;hy it is not just as ripht for the ‘ tate to seek to promote eoual freedom 
of religion as i t is to promote equal freedom of trade. I cannot see why it is 
not the duty of nations to help other nations, as men help other men, and vhy also 

Mr> Harold A. Hatoh 



nations oto not in duty bound to prevent great wrongs, even If they are done by 
and In other nations. Therefore, I believe In the League of nations and 1 would 
have it develop an international law which would prevent Armenian massaores, and 
evan in the absence of such law, I would have had nations like great Britain, 
France and the United States prevent the Armenian massacres, as they could have 
done and as Great Britain was bound by her own solemn obligations to do, under 
the Cj^rus Oonventlon. And 1 would have had those same nations prevent the Sjijn- 
rna disaster, as they could have done by one united word. 

And under the same principle, I do not believe it ^ 7 as wrong for the 
United States in her treaties with China to seek to prevent aggression, op¬ 
pression and cruelty being inflicted upon Chinese people and I do not like to 
be fooled, as many Americans are allowing themselves to be fooled today, 
as to the real facts of life. Ulth all our inequality and injustices in the 
United States, we have such order and fairness and happiness here as are to be 
found nowhere else on earth, and I believe that our nation should use its influ¬ 
ence as a nation both to make our own home order better and purer and also to 
help other peoples whose lot is so infinitely harder than our own. The effect 
of the course of action of those idealists who shut their eyes to the evil and 
wrong elsewhere and to the good and happiness here at home is exactly the sa^e 
as the men of whom Lowell wrote, vdiose love of freedom and human good was for 
themselves and not for all the race. 

First of all then, it seems to me that, eliminating Foreign lUssions 
from our consideration altogether, the nation as such has a Christian duty to 
secure absolute freedom of religion everywhere, including China and Turkey, 
and I believe it ought to use its influence to obtain the recognition of such 
freedom, just as the League of Nations has done in all its mandate speoificatlons. 
Uore than this is our duty, too, as we are fit for it because the State is bound 
to be Christian and to behave as Christian in all its internal affairs and in 
its outer relationships. 

The Evangelical Alliance of the days of our fathers existed to ac¬ 
complish this result of universal religious freedom and a good part of the 
battle of human rl^ts in the 19 century was over this issue. Today, in ^aln 
and fern and elsewhere, we are losing some of the ground that was then won. \/i 
shall lose still more if some tendencies of current opinion are not overcome. 
China and Turkey are the tvio countries where, just at present, this most funda¬ 
mental of all human ri^ts is most threatened. V!hy can they not learn in 
this matter and in some other things, too, from Japan, from the struggle of 
that earnest country to find and follow the right way? 

5- The questions we have considered exist quite independently of 
Forei^ Missions, They would have to be answered, even if Foreign Missions 
did not exist. Dismissing now those questions, we come to the other question 
of the relation of the Church in the prosecution of its missionary task to 

(1) Shhll the missionary have no relation whatever to governmente? 

He is not allowed thus to separata hli"self. He oannot leave America now. 


ISr. Earold A. Hatch 

mnnt another land without a passport, which he must get from his govern- 

of Ms register, at once, in the nearest Consulate 

of his government and his passport and he himself, have to bo registered with 
Sovernment, under which he has gone to live. He cannot acouire land for his 
home, hospital, school or chapel, except under the laws of government aoauisi- 
tion and ownership of land. Often he is ashed, either by his own government, 

goverment to which ho has gone, to render some helpful service desired 
is of a clear political nature, as when both Siam and 
the nlted States ashed Dr. liatoon to act in putting in operation the first di- 
plomatio relations betoeon the two countries; or as when missionaries have been 
asked to act as Consuls or Vice-Consuls, while still remaining missionaries in 
Persia and China. Sometimes the service asked is not primarily political but 
Inevitably involves political relationships and consequences, like the work of 
Dr. Cochran and Dr. I-ackard in Persia, when they saved cities and their inhabi¬ 
tants from destruction by the iSu-ds; of Livingstone and Maolcenzie and the 
Scotch missionaries in Africa, and of Paton in the South Seas, when he sou^t 
to defend the people from the traffic in liquor and fire arms, and supported 
by the Mission Boards carried on negotiations in 7/ashington ;Tith the American 
government. A thousand other illustrations could be found. It is not pos¬ 
sible to carry on the Poreign lassion enteirriso excepting in human relation¬ 
ships and these inevitably involve relations to political authorities. 

(II) But while the missionary must have political duties, it may be 
contended that ho has no civil or political rights, or, if he has these rl^ts 
he must forego them. In a certain measure, of course, this is Just what he 
does, but, in the first place, he cannot and is not allowed to forego them all 
and, consequently, the rights of which he cannot divest himself, if ho would, 
and also the duties from which he ougjit not to divest himself, if he could, 
bring with them all the difficulties of political confusion and entanglement 
which so many fresent day discussions lay at the missionary's door, as thou^ 
they were reprehensible and wrong, !o escape all this, it would be necessary 
to send oxu? foreign missionaries to some non-existent, ethereal world. Further¬ 
more, one may raise the question as to what valid distinction there is between 
an American Christian living in Asia as a missionary and one going there as a 
tourist or trader. The fact that one of these Christians is fulfilling the 
Christian duty to make Christ known and that the others may not be doing so, la 
no reason why one of them, and that the best one, should be denationalized and 
esche\7ed by his government, when that government has no ri^t to exist except as 
an ordinance of the same Sod who gave the Gospel. In fundamental moral prin¬ 
ciples, it cannot be right for a non-missionary Christian to accupy a status 
different from the missionary Christian. Consideration of expediency and pru¬ 
dence may lead the missionary to pursue a special course but, if so, that is his 
own privilege and not a requirement laid upon him from without. 

(Ill) But, it is said, the issue is not the relation of missionaries 
to their home governments but of all foreigners to the governments under which 
they have elected to live. If they go to other lands, it may be said they 
ou^t to go with their eyes open and prepare to accept the conditions which 
they find there. In a sense and to a degree this is obviously true but if the 


Ur« Harold A, Batch 

conditions there are i^umn and onjust, inflicting wrong upon foreignere, or 
Mtives, or both, if the laws are indefensible and intolerable, they ouAt to 
be changed and more human and enlightened governments have a right and duty 
to seek by just and peaceable measures, or by the organized police opinion 
and constraint of the world through a V/orld heague to secure rational and humane 
laws. It is right to seek universally righteous laws, both national and inter- 
national and all people, whoever they are and wherever they are, have the rleht 
to desire and enjoy such laws, 

(IT) Pundamental among such laws is the right of religious liberty. 

The exeroise of that right may be fatal to some political or social systems, but 
in that case they ought to be destroyed or changed and viestern theorists are 
wrong in defending the ri^t of such systems to maintain themselves at the cost 
of the denial of fundamental human ri^ts. 'Then as in Spain, Turkey, Colombia 
or Peru or else.'ftere religious liberty is ^.bridgoa, lusjior^.-ias are warranted in 
pointing It out and in maldng trouble about It and in seeldng to secure national 
or international action, 7;hJloh will Insure the recognition of the principle of 
toleration, anit for Christianity alone hut equally for all religions. 

(V) But, once more, it may be said, I have not come to the real actual 
problem, that in trying to draw so many theoretical distinctions, wo have only 
obscured things, that the practical question is the confusion of our uaselfish 
spiritual religious enterprise with the great ambitions and self-sesking of west¬ 
ern trade and its support by western governments and with the evils and injustices 
of western civilization, Christian missions must oonqjletaly disentangla themselves 
from all this and stand out clear and pure. The difficulty is to separate the 
truth from the error in this view. 

a- Ho such conjilete disentanglement can be made. American missionaries 
are Americans and go from America; they cannot go from anywhere else and they 
cannot be anything else, no matter how much they love the people, not even if 
they give v?) their American eitizenship as David Trumbull did voluntarily in Chile 
and as Qiildo Verbeok would have done in Japan, if he had had any citizenship that 
he could give up. American missionaries cannot become Chinese, or Indians, or 
Africans, no matter how they live or talk or what they eat or wear. They oan 
surmount all conditions by love and service, as in thousands of cases they have 
done, but they cannot siamount reality; «et even the most loving and sympathetic 
missionaries cannot escape the facts of reality, foreign liissl onarles had nothing 
to do with ttie last Japanese Exclusion Act, except to oppose it with all their 
power and yet every missionary in Japan felt the evil effect of that Aot and had 
to pay the penalty for it. 

b- Just at present, the world is not seeing vei'y strkl^t and many of 
our contecporary judgsents are as unbalanced and immature on one side, as our 
pre-war judgments were on another. Ho one oan point out more terribly the evil 
elements and effects of our western oommeroial and political relations with Asia, 
Africa and South America than Foreign Hlssionaries oan, and no one knows better 
the fault and unworthy elements, intellectual, moral and spiritual, social and 
industriak, in our western civilization. But this is not the ^ole story.And 

jir. Harold A. Hatch 

- 6 - 

the proaent disoussloa, vdiioh distorta tha real facts in the iatereet of 

Mtionali^ aad cultxire and the unrelieved condemnation o^ 
western civilisation ou^ht not to be allowed to stampede us. 'i>he inmaot of 

“ has heen full, al^ of Jod, 

f It . heen more hospitable tf thS 

evil thM to the ^od. it is foolish to talk today, as so many do, with no 

^^erse elements in western civilisation and retation- 
shipa. MO words of condemnation can be spoken too bitterly against the evil 

pitiful that wreign Missionaries have to bear any of the reproach of 
oo^sion with this evil but there have been and are elements of great good with 
which, so far as Uiey are Christian, Foreign Missionaries cannot help being con¬ 
fused and ought to be ccmfused. Christianity and its espression in roreiM Mis- 
slons mst do their beat to keep themselves clear in these matters, oondeLing 
what it may bo their duty to condemn and arprovii^ what is good and right but 
in our poor mixed world and our poor raized lives, there will be sure to be con¬ 
fusion and any attengit to esowe from it by the road of blind extremeism will 
only in the end produce worse confusion. 

(VI) There may be a>ra who will seek to find the way out of these 
difficulties by the theory of the pure spirituality of the church and the duty 
of religion and Foreign Missions to have nothing to do with anything but the 
future destiny of the soul, but no one can act on this theory. The Mew Testa¬ 
ment condemns it and no church or mission or missionary can atply it. The ex¬ 
ceptions which it requires involve all the problems vdiioh we have been consider¬ 

Let us try to state this extreme view and see what it logically in¬ 
volves and how far it is possible. Under such a view/, missionaries should give 
up all their foreign character and all civil and political rights of eveiy sort. 

They must, of course, submit to all legal requirements, such as passports, re¬ 
gistration, residence and government restrictions, but they should neither seek 
nor accept any exercise of political or civil protection from any government what¬ 
ever, either native or foreign, and if injured or v/ronged or interfered with they 
should peacefully acquiesce without resort to any courts or any civil authority. 

They should unreservedly take the position of non-resistance to evil and of thor¬ 
oughgoing identification with the people to whom they go. They should seek natural¬ 
ization in the country Which they have adopted, wherever this is possible; they must 
master the language so as to speak it as their own a«l seek to enter into the cul¬ 
tural inheritance of the land, so far as this is possible fOr Christians to do. 

They should conform to native styles of dress and dwelling and food. They should 
realize that their children should be thought of, not as Americans but as citi¬ 
zens of the adopted country of fheir parents, and the children should attend the 
schools of the land and not be sent to special schools for their own race, or be 
sent away to America. The present practice of furloughs in America militates 
against the complete identification of the missionary with tha people in the 
native church and should be given up as in the case of Homan Catholic Missions. 

Their support should be determined by the native church, wherever such church 
exists and should be paid to them through the church authorities, even though 
it may be tanporarily siqiplled from the homeland. In all matters of retirement 

jar. Harold A. Eatdh 


and Buperannuatlon they should accept the same status as their ad<^ted people. 

It has been told by some (for example Dr. "’rl^t, ur. Stokes, la-s. oatta, etal) 
that this principle inTolves also the property and wisdom of racial intermarriage 
and the total ignoring of all racial, as well as national, lines. 

Some of these proposals can we well defended but others of them are 
Blnrly impossible and this Impossibility carried with it the inavltable abandonment 
of the theory. 

(VII) Our only possible solution is St, paul*s. He was a Romai citi¬ 
zen and he fulfilled all his duties as a citizen. V/hen his Christian duties brought 
him into conflict with the government which, in his case, was not a foreign gov¬ 
ernment but his own, to carried the matter to the hl^st courts and abode by the 
decision allliough in the end, justly or injustly, it cost him his life. r.-hen the 
interests of his cause involved the exercise of his political rights, he exercised 
them as in Hhilippi and vdien they did not ha said nothing about them, as in Ephe¬ 
sus. In other words, he acted according to judgment and expediency and not on any 
theoretical and absolutist idea, either way. V,'e cannot do otherwise today, even 
if we want to, and we ought not to want to follow any other course than St. Paul’s 
and, apparently, also our Lord's. 

(VIII) This view will leave us with many perplexities but so dose 
life itself and answers can always be found to those as we come to them, one by 
one. Let us speak of two. 

1- With reference to all questions of rights, whether treaty rights 
or rights under ones own or under another government, T.'e have two ouestions to 
consider, one of equity and the other of expediency and the question of equity 
is two fold, viz. SIS to principle and as to msthod, in the case of China today, 
the toleration clauses were equitable in principle, the method was a mixture of 
ri^t and wrong. The wisest and best men, at the time, believed them to be ex¬ 
pedient (see Life of S. tvells Tfilliams). Today, the rights vhioh those clauses 
express are true rijits but they ought to be secured either by reciprocal trea¬ 
ties or by effective conetltutional and legal guarantees in China. The tariff and 
extra territoriality questions are questions with which Poral gn Kiss ions, as such, 
has no concern. They are not religious questions, unless we identify religion 
with everything. Those who declare that Poreign !iissions must have nothing to 
do with politics are certainly the last who have any right to demand that Rjrelgn 
Missions should Involve themselves in these problems, except so far as Injustice 
Ts done. Against injustice it is the business of Christianity to protest, 
whether committed against China by foreigners or by Chins, either against for¬ 
eigners or against tor own people. 

2- The practical question arises in lands where religious liberty 
is denied or abridged- what shall missions do tors? Shall they expect their own 
and other enlightened governments to secure the satabllshnBnt of religious free¬ 
dom and meanwhile defer preaching the Gospel, or shall they go ahead and preach 
with all the wisdom and prudence they can command but still fearlessly and take 
the consequences? Shall their own government allow them to do this or protect 

Mr. Harold A. Hatch 

iajured. it oamot he denied western govern- 
“ItiLnrt, ha ^il® point- Can they allov; their missionary 

Tn th fl’®“®^- J"®t because their religious conviotlons oL- 

pel them to e^^ioae themselves to such dangers? it certainly is the duty of mis¬ 
sionaries to avoid creating troublesome problems for their govemnwnts, just as 
'f oertalnljr they are as fully Justified in exercising the rl^t 

of freedom of reUgion as merchants are to exercise the right of freedom of trade 
and governments themselves nrast determine what their duties are in oonseouenoe. 

^t What are missionaries to do whan against the judgment of the mis- 
sionaries themselves, their own Consuls advise or even order them to follow a 
course of ahstentioa from missioiary work, or abandonment of mission stations? 

Can they ask protection from Consuls whom they are not prepared to obey? No 
they ought not to aSk protection and they ought to do what tlmy believe to be 
their duty. Mlseionaries ought never to ask for gun boats or military irotsct- 
lon or political intervention, and as a matter of fact, 19/20 of the talk about 
the use of gun boats and armies and navies to protect and support SCreign Jlie- 
siooMies is sheer nonsense. Missionaries can get along best without any poli- 
tieal interference and they wish none. All they have aright or desire to aSk 
is the common enjoyment of the rights of Ilfs, property and conscience, which 
ought to bo secured to every human being oveiywhere. 

It is needless to add that this has been no attempt to deal thoroughly 
with the whole problem. 1 have merely tried to set forth what seems to ms to be 
the truth about some of the present day a^edts in ths missionary enterprise of 
this problem of the relation of Church and State, of religion and politics T/hihh 
hae been with mankind always in the past and will be with us in the future. 

With kind regards. 

Very cordially yours. 


(Signed) Robert E. Speer. 

on tij> -.yi. ; 

-Ucti t 

Till* B^aorajiduB is wlbiily {>«rsOQal« i oni wltlut; it not no nn offleor of 
on* of the 3onrh3, but ns an inalrlunal ooBbKr of ths OiairOh oi-O is troubion oxw 
tiio ioroonat sltuntian and anxious to pronoto too unity a d offloienoy of tb* Ck«roU 
and its vorlt. it soans to m: that o* are in ^aoe daUjjor of ignoriug th* lessons 
taui^t by our experienoe uith tin Intoroburoh Vorid i'ov^'^Eient ana ofuestroylni^ the 
Hew ,.rn HuraBont and injuring tno sorlt of the Ojairoh. 

fhe probX^QS before tlio Cinroh now siuntld be eaaainsd in the caost oondid and 
intrepid way* The only basio on which any useful and luatlng noveueiit osu be built 
is tho basis of true ih-inoijies and ri.^ht rolationshipa. If it rests on erroneous 
—prinoiyXoa or wrong rolat ionshipa^ noither sioney* nor authority nor saill oan prosareu 
it* Any one who says this and nhe seehs to point out wnht is unwise (n not right 
otght not to oe oharged with being dlvieiTO or out of syovathy with the LoreMnt which 

4*»- , 

he is^seeltiog to aid in tra beet by bringing it into aooord with tna true and rlglit 
principles on which alone it oan soaoead* 

In the oaao of the IntarohDrah ISovoesent Dany of its waajme;iaes ana nistahus 
were wiearly aeen b.t those who urgsu tidr correction wore not listcneu to. -110 
Kovdaent was pressed past then to disaster. Xiet os not repeat such an error in ear 
own Ohureh. Those are tin best ft-iaudn of the K w lira tlOTonent who try to save it 
by getting It upon a acnnid and rijht basis: not those wt.o urge courses of aotion 
wbloh, it Is believed, are sure to wreoK it and to injure tei^orarily at least We 
oause it was oroatea to serve. 

'de see now that It mignt have boon bettor if thoao who realised the wrong 
ooui'ses W:.lob the Inturohuroh was garanlsg bad withheld support or had wi tbdrawn tram it 
whoa it rejected th>;ir oonneols, instead of oontlming with it ini.ope to coueorve its 
good eleneuts in spitv of its Bistahes. The better thing, of o mrse, woulu have boen 
to BiaitB tbs neoassary ohan os in tho latero/iurab Kovcnenl. That is wn better oourse 
uow in t:-e Oaso of the hew .^ra. 

Beforo tjolng un to .pooic Arjouiy and o-nstruetlv^ly or am of th. da))««r« 
of the Eew which »ro paraUel to the Bi.taxo. of Int.rchurob, 1 *Uh to apo«h 
IB toa otrongOBt way of aoco jf the eiecouti of great taluo In bhth Bor’ettwnte. (1) «« 
principle and spirit of coOferatiou. 1 o lore nnliy 1 » one of tix fhndatentid 
Ctrletlan ideals and that cooperation aisong Curlatlan danomliviUons and a»o.,g tlu, agsnoiss 
in any danc«liistloo is an ena so good and aoslrahle tJat It atonos for itany Impsrfeotlous 
in tidi fom wuioh suoh ooopsratlon csy take. ?h« idea, riowswer, t at in t(« Int.roharoh 
tfis cooperation whloh was soourod look the Uoe of friction and oompetltlo^botwoen ths 
asnamlnatloas is a siotokon idea. 2iiut oooporation only Ocjrried forward relations 
pf goodwill and fellowship widoh already existed. Lihewise the Idea ttat In the Hew ira 
the Boards andogenales jf the Churoh wsre led out of oonillot Into ocnoord Is grounulecs. 
■liisy wars not in oonfllot. Ji.ey werenworkiiti togotnor trustfully and sywpatoetldaily. 

In* Kew -ra was sluply an effort at fsirther and isore offeotive Coopemtlon. Srcry such 
honest effort is to be weleobjeu and ezutouroged, 12) Xbe oour {eoos presontatlon of a 
prograB of serrloe and of glrlng far in adTancv of old standards by the Interoh. rob and 
the hew Ira was axiotbsr praise«ortl^ I'oaturo of their »ork. Bor e think tiiat tne new 
staud/urds were set annaa too far and too suddenly. It nay bo so. But uTon so tbs ad- 
vunoe was not without lie a vantages«As one of the secretaries of the /aorloun Boaru said 
of the Congregational dhurch a, the now prOp>.salB Jarred ano loosened the fixed anu 
sbriTolea couoeptlcns which tad ooau lo pr .Tall and oacpelled ths churohos ve think in 
new teres of their uuBy and their possibility. 13) fba oomeon aau oooruiixited pre¬ 
sentation of true ideas of stewardsiiip, ti^e ooBbintd statsment of the Oburoa's task in its 
varied and yet related fonas, tbo coBentua of bat>i a slBUltaasous aai a unlteu appeal, anl 
the pressui e of a ubliolty made possible only ly oooper tion — these and other kindred 
advantages aooru d to the C..ui-obea tij-ousb the Intoroi.urdh and to our own Churoh through 
the Bew V'ra. (4) She financial results of the interonuroh In its general appoal were 
an alsust total failure. boaie denoBinatlona, such as tbs Eefonsed OhUBhh In toe U.3., 
sad the United IVesbyterlaa Churoh, report a notable saooess in their canpaigne and 
attribute It In no awll part to th inflneaoo of t .e Interohuroh. In our ovo Churoh 

- 3 - 

tuer* is dlffsranoa al opialon as to 

„ tslpst. 0, 

UlQ&€r#d ooT ficfw Lsjrft aaa aIkh* it » 

. ^ . ,, .0 p... J.W»t 

j»»t to reotign ts the ausanoe 

p.-.r. .-. ... .. ,, .. „ ^ • 

.».«... „... .....^ 

..Ul ... ... 

.1. ..»». „. ^ 


,W* au^ oo ino Otht 

liaod Ci« Intorohnroh tovaoiaut Bsade eat^ grows errors recently 

grows errors. Jaggo :Oto <riQoi:a» boea .«t 

uM/l /iAtiVsl a A.__ ^*** 

-• -- - - VI vjuni^l 

on.<iouhi..tote.entsostbitsonoroot,rohb,.ai, Uc. o. octroi ropresen.civ. coo- 
troi n c. pare or the cooperaCiog booies. tl. s.ov ,.ent being airecte. oy a ,e,r.Co: iai 

b.o»P >.ich reaii, rre.ea ana oa ri.u chough its c. poXioies. oon^tinet in o..Cr.venCion 

Of tfte eaqa-essed views of the oooporatin,- oarti s t*,. „ 

pwatino parti..,; the oensoloua or uacooKious tendency t 

.... . ... ... . 

.pp., ». ,„ ., ,......., .... ..... ..... .......... ....... 

‘*‘'' OP..PU1 „,„p, .. 


or the riex^ or action ana th, ass^tptl^ or onnecessory and divisive fnnetions, 
injdalcione aavertlslng and i*.hiioit, activt*.., the dlrfiooity or satisfying oil ih. 
.Idexy civerse eles,.nte in tl. natter or leadership and or secoring ade^psat, ch.oa «td 
-«oe in the oounssis or the lav .ent ft-at the ,esters ana laity of the n or hee. 

«y dlsi^to this analysis or thlna tlpst cone or toes, weahnossa, -ere point, or strsngth. 

1 thinh. no»,ver. t,stt tuls statement aocounts to Bacy o t,., reasons , loh cost ta, ito,., 

«he syspeti;, and su.port of the Clwch.s even hefero the failure or the fluanoial 


Sow some of those things are present aangere of tne Sew ..ra and uui purpoi. 

0/ this BOBorandun, is to call attention to then. In hope tMt by fearle.sly facing 
the facts ana najUng whatever Onanges my be aedessary the i.ove*«.t my be savea frm 


tt* dlffiouitlEa towara iihito It 1 » ooving. 

1 . 1 . 1 . ^ ^ ^ 

-„ ...... „ .„ ,„ ^ 

m . B.t is this a ..oasible solution or the ^.roolesiT r.ooaptlue; it, it is none th 
less neoosoar, to ma.e »ith oo«ploto olearnoo. on. oao».n aoooni these two a.peot. o, 
the «e. .ra-s wohh. .his .me nowoh t«en aone. oither in iUea. in states.ont or polio, 
in organisation o.. i„ accounts. .t the *o, .ra Ccn^lttee aeetin, at AtUntio cit, ’«eor 21,-22. iSiiu. it appeareu that the whole buUset of the Sew Ura for fir. aonth. 

Of the year alraao, past hao o.en pale by tl^ a.sxrae on thx. on interproution Of the 
Jiew -ra-s character ana ha 4 been espenoeh by the he, :« on the ct,.r interpretation 
of its -haraoter. if jt is replied that the Oecsral r.ssrasbiy luatruoteU the Joards 
to pay th. Whole buo«et. the hnow;er is that t.stt is quite true, but tiat ti.e question new 
i. not nne of General .vsse..!,iy authority but of w^at hlna of organisation i, logically 
sound and ethleaiiyrt^t. hnd it is certain this funcuotental ounTuslon of 
oharacter Which aakc-s the Sew hra two tUnea, one of wMoh It U for getting it. fund, 
fr* the Goards. ana the other of which it is in opendln*; its funds for purposes, how- 
- v p beneficent, in large treasure wholly apart fr ». tac chart red responsibility of 
the ioarass *uloh assigns it two sections. <«e of which is «.ppos d to unify the 3 o«-da 
ana to slnplirp ti.a sltuatiojyiu th.- Oiairoh.anu tin other of which adoe another ioard 
ana ooBylloates the situation will Inevltab'gr hroai aown. Slther tbe X«r Sra snouid be 
only a central clearing aoaae ana Instmaont of the doards for cooperation and as enou 
uireotea imu nnauo^a by tr*ett, or It anotUu bb « 30paratc)/»(f«ikc/ of tie Ciairoh 
flnanoed by the Church as such Just liw any othe doard. ana charged with those cenernl 
spiritual and direotiTo tasas in the general life of the Cl»roh in.ioi. t.^e G,ceral AsseBbly 
any deem wise to assign to it, if there be suoi. tasks as nay be better oared for in this 
way than thpowgh the existing hoards and other organisations of the Ciuroh. 

- 6 - 

. r, ’ 

pr.«nt effort on u* part of ear., to t« S.« .ra the on.. 
seutraU«.u oolleoHot; and r.oelviu* a«onoy for ail the o.«Tolmt fund, of tb. O™ 
ti^oodfe -uloh .11 euon lluui. ra^st b. r.laou. to .bllt.rat, all d..lgn.tlon of gift, to 
j^rtloulitr oau«»sor ooject. t.^ao glfte oo«. froa cutrobe. or lnaiTlau. 1 .. 

»iKi to dl*tribute pro rat. out of a eoaison beji.Tolwtos fund tu, sum .hion aaob oo*rd 
and i^ono/ Is to tor. for ti« wrk oonaittto to It. .U to .ffort .-lob i. .long In 
i)rluoi;>l«, iBiJOasiblo In praotieo, and unaaalrabi* in result. Jho altern.ilre Is 
not unbridled Inuirldualito and a oompetUlro app«Bl by tb.. oauses of tue Ctorob 
fn. ultoruatira, whion tn. wttr«re news no. being pressed reject, is a .is. and efi'eot- 
ir. ooBbination of tto two prlnoii.ies of ord..r anu fretoon. 1 stoll return to this 
true solution. 

The effort just duso; ibeo 13 a not oeen orerstateu. Iba sooretiu-lea 01 ua 
Sew Ur. and some n»iiiaara of its o.iEiiilttoe tore again and again frankly .rowed tbls ae 
tnelr ideal and endoaros. Resolution after resolution w.ilob tore been brought fonrard 
with regard to tn. peroeutaje Basis of thj budget, the form of subooription cards, the 
substitution of Bcw Hr. treasurers for Soaru treasurers as reoelring agevits, the with¬ 
holding by tbs B w ira of ail .unds reoeivo. in itaroh to ueo tnoo iiir oquallsatlOD pur¬ 
poses In the InoOEua of t;.* doaras, the effort to levy upon flinds sJnt/dlrootly to t.e soarde 
nyvaswerit in the interest of a pooled eq.uallzatito plan tore all arowedly looked toward the 
end described. 

But aay plan wblob depriros donors olitor ulrootly or oy Indlreotiun of tnelr 
right ana power to ee the trustees and auBinistrators of luei r own gifts If they so de¬ 
sire la wrong. dqy donor who wants to giro to any ueftnite oause should ae free to oo so 
and us can not Lonor.bly be frustrated in his purpose to help that cause by any uevloe waioh 
withdraws froit It enou^ reoelpts to offset nis oontributlon. 

Panor.s are airvaoy becoaUig aware of this dungsr and ore requiring that If 
part of their £;lfta has to be transferrud under a pe oentage oebaBS to otiier oauses they 
should be returned to tnem. here Is an illustratire letter recsired by our board with 
a large oontrlautlun: 

"'fhis amount is to bo used exclusively for toe aoove porposs nnd is act 
to ba reported to tto Mew dra nor is the amount to be uirlded in ai^r way'^itb toy othur 

- 6 - 


^ tUl. o„n.l<Uratlon ol -o,»l 40 .. not nppl, aloo. to inOirt*.aU -no 

t^4ilr sift. Olrootii- to on« of the SoarO,. it ai.^lias ai.o to .ho .i- tio-oodt 
oi,«rob Offering,. Ihoy are not a.a^ .non the, put ton amiar. In Uoi offoring, f» 

,<*0 t ioolono t.^t vnOor ti,. plan .Uon 1, being pm.-u aoao Vl-lon. .111 «.t only on. 
fifth Of t.At onount froa that donor. Under t,^ plan, d-d. In order to bo ollo-d 
,0 elTo «o doaar, to Hon. ltia,i^o a donor a«at gi- .igot aoll«-. to t,- oth- aonrd. 

-d ogonole,. If t.o dollar. 1. nU h. to give. hcn« tl-ion, .m g.t only fort, 
a.nt* Of It. So fcaTo no right to iapo- on tU) Church a .ohoe. ».ioh tab.. ..ay fro. 
th. otorohe, «d n^ober. ti.. ^rlYUega W tJlTlng aooorulng to tholr aeu -a- of 
liaty and .ttntardaifipi^ 

Sho pros)0»od plan Is not on.y wOng. It is dipraot oabie. it cannot M 
applied to tee seif-Wivorting synod, to HtEe yissioi; wrk. X,» very prlnol d. of 
, Mparato .ynouioal finanoUl re.ponslbUlly ttas tb. rojmulation of this plan, .nd t e 
ho— Board wi.oiy fostered this definite jynodioal allocation of gift, and of da.l... 

And yet the siks for synoulcal geli-snpport are mode a part of the Ho. _ra buuget and 
are isatodiinolodvd in ti4i dotomlnatlon ot the ratio in widoh the churo; oe are asked to 
give thouab they are utterly beyond tha rc-aoh of any Bqwsltiatlonuprooesa. in other 
fields than •yuodloal Boeo Kiseions the proposed plan is founu lapradtioable. buy 
floagregatlons and individuals support huno or foreign alsslonarles or hor.e 0 , foreign 
Hiisslon stations, Friends of pjiTtlouldr oollegos give to their xaxxx needs. Fersonai 
Ihtarests and ties lie baok of t).sse relatlontolps. To obliterate the designation of gifts 
is to eollide nith an irrepres Ible and evori' *“y Ikmorable iustinot .hioh ought to be 
fostered, not repressed. The proposed plan .ill siBq;>ly drive donors out of the ontiroh 
lltogether or .111 lead t/ie. to give .holly apart froB the tusnevolence budget of the ohuroh. 

tod the proposed plan is undesirable in its result. Ihs oaporlenoe of churches 
»hloh nave .orkeii .Ith It for years is uvailable. It falls to eduonte In intelligent knowledg 
Of ti« vork of tho Church and in responsibility for it. atlog^ling has its values, but 

It is .ithln4liEiits. .t dies not oall forth tM saerlfice of the church. It pro- 


potoa wiimn tAft Oiuroh joti t;,at of aiftidsot 

^“^ponslbliity „hloh the 

.0 U- 1^. or . «.«, l..era.„«,^„_, ^ ^ 

tou ^ . o.ntr.X ,«»o,. ^ 

poroonox 8lrt„« i„ ,, ^,,, 

Xiir3»st 6o<X, Of ds«p. jonnotion and onpport. 

Sh« right .oXotlon of th« pro.l« xio, in n oXoar rooosnitlon botn of th. nood 
of oraor and of ch* right and dblmblxity of fr.«i«. v,« ^ 

*« compoXXod to ^rh at tho ^^bXon m it, ,poolaXi.«i ri«Xd yoar, ago. Xt -aa. tho 
offort to haro aXl tto forojgn mUoion gift, or u.. Oiu^oi,., ana oX Inal.ldnuX. oontrlKt-d 
to on. nnoMlgnatod fund. Sh. offort oa. fotlXo. sithor a dlfferont .y,t« Xu«x to o, 
d.Tls.d or -any donor, oonld elo. ,«ir -ooay out.iao tho doord. or -ouXd not giro it .t 
ail. 5f;^ aointlon on. to ollw donor, to deolgnato gift. »|.thln tn. totnX buagot of 
to. »«tra. and to naanro th* o th. totaX application of ti^ir girt, to th. ohj.ot. d..*g- 
natod or if tho ohj.ot waa* tl« hodgot ana ucnor «. unolillng to aooopt an ob>« 
»lthXn,tii«i .ittor to approre tho oot.lda gift or^ .torfc it. 

in tho case or the 8 . :;ra. i beliere tho .olutlci i, perf.otXy ,inpX.. 

Oburobe, and donora ahoulo b. enowraged to the fuXlort extent to provide the full anount of 
th. andgot ana «thln that 3ua6.t to oonalder for thOBseXvaa their otm obligation, and 
reaponeibilltie. and to designate their glfta. huoh dealsnatlon. should b. aort.i>nXoo8Xy 
re;ard.d. All oharehes and donora should be enoourr.geu to aord thalr gi ft. dlreotly tothe 
treasurer, of the 3<»rda and aganoies. Share bhould alao be a treaaurer of th. i:* Jr. 
to nhOB individual, or orgsnlaetKaa oealrlng to do ao, nay Mna W.*Sr to be 
divided as t».oy dealre, either aooaralng to the ratio of th. budget,or, if th^ «lah 
la any other ratio, or for pnr yoae. of equallMtlon. Let there be x<^(m for giving by 
thoee eho want to tmat otijera with tho dlatrloutlon of tneir gift, and alao by oti.era .no 
uiah to uiatrlbute th-iir own. 

Another feature of the propoaod plan la ita Ideal of one oo loot log and dla- 
triteitlng ngenoy for all t .. 3oarda. Che reason, against tnla are nanlfold now. Ko 
an. can sey what the future develoittent of the Ohnroh nay kUm wlae. ant today aueh a 

- 8 - 

( 92 . 

iaom* Xtiamu nmy too ouoh tMt )>ao boon «ali>o(L by aaorifloo ooa fldoiity in tba post 
ttOii lt» ooepoBsatoty proolso* aro too Insoouro. juou llviiic inotltutlono ot hay* boon 
Wilt op In our ChuTOh npo too iaroolouo Xi toiiorll, too Oimonlt to reotoro. It u; 
talbly bo aakoo wi-otbor any ioard or a««aoy of tbo Churob -oMon has not so distinct a t ust 

and task that thsso mist bo laid oloarly and olstlnetly npon .tf* intoJ.lgoaoo and emaalaiKio 

and boaoTolonoo of tb Otinroh is noodsu » a dlstlnot ajjanoy. Oortalnly tharo is no aitain- 
fer scBo of tiiOB. 

IstratlTO noessslty/ Jh y ooold oaslly bo isai.e dapartaonts of otbar B(»rds. Tho ar^o- 
sent for thoir saparate oxistonoo ooaXd sosb to bo iisiisiliMi dlssOLvod If U«sy faaTO no 
alstinot and effbetlTO appoal to luako ti tho Ciajpob for support. Jbls ({oostion, bOBeyor, 
fill bo takOn op in tt>s aooond Motion ox tbls EMorandtat. 

iha wise o'njrao la not to allow tbo £«« .ira to drift Into an offort to bodiaa 
tbs oustodlaa and dlstrlwtor of tbo Oonoyolobt funds of tbe Cburob nor to mbordinato tbs 
pilnoiplo ox tbs intsilli;«nt ottuoatlon and freodoa of tbo oburobos to tbe prlnol lo of a 
poolod bsosyolonoe dlrostod froet above. 

1 bay© not e.joe boy ud tiui broad prlnol..aos sot forth boro to oonsld r tno dlffloul 
tlus of tX;e peroontago buuget tyaXea In detail, iny axaalnatl m of tbe present Bov .ira 

U4 do/- 

luagst vill diaoluse tb«D. -aso agenoji^ XB^asslgnsm tbsro a vm liV'Cmy tlx ss (proator tban 
iTsr resolvod tram ti^ Cburoh for work In any ono year. ?be Kev Kra aoyoBsut Itself 
losleraatas its expoiulturs tliore for ‘>ne purposo and proposes to spend it for anotbOTf and 
its paraeutan'O of 8p> Is £«rely arbitrary. ?bese are o. ly lllastmtlve. 

3. Sliise/ and nooesslty are dealing vUb tbo natter of tbe expoases of tbe £•>« 

akoyettent. It la to b>-- hopeu tiAt It is not too late to escape tbe disaster ublob 
ttnrtook tbe Intoroiurcb In this ragssrd. jone aUoga tbnt that disaster eas dn<i to the 
iufflclency Of tbe retnnw frosu tbs jenoral sanpalcsas to nMt the ooat of tbe koreseut. 
tat is one rl^n of it. Sim> utb<>r Is that the oost of Us kOTsnmt vas arang no natter etant 

reoelpts nigbt .'Ave b<'enf 'fbese funds are a relislDus trust., ffaa soa e ana ideals of x- 

bElltnre in business are not applicable, '.'be ra ivAx&sv spent too saiab and too nredly. 
oue^ut to bo aualnlstered co t/A sans pi lncl Is of edonosy and evea parslBony -s the Stnrds. 
It uas not. I'bare are ateee prlaal.'les i^idb soao. to m» at least to be olear. (1) tbe 

> -ra UovSBient OBidit to do ns wioh of Its vork as .ossiela tiirua^ tbe existing neoblnery of tl 

- 9 - 


vtairoh in ayi-.od* and preabytarias and in t;« Boards. It sbonla btllu up as llttls of a 
soparato oo.tly oraanlsatlon as possible. Tbe Bore -orlc ibat esn be .,-ot doi.e sponioneous- 
IJr amd fb-eely tOa better. (2) Ibe Kovemsmt cannot bavs iod* s blftsslng n it In using tram 
tba froasurories of tUa Boards funds wbloh are not aireotad to adetoioine the oausss for 
wbiob tnasa funds are a trust. tha C-ensral Aseeicbiy nay satborise tbls, bnt 1 do not be 
lleTO ijod will, ana 1 do not thitili ti.e {ienersl Issesbly »H1 wben it understands it. (9| 
got wbatevor other work the Hew Ura a»y boliew® it to be its duty to oarry oUj^ot It seoura 
avppcrt frois tt:e 'leiiersl /-uSseDbly or frcn the Cburcbes direotiy and openly in ways that will 
iLdloato wt*t the Bburoh reaUy wants. The .eroentage distribution of a fund raised under 
tbs strong appanl of the missionary and e.JuoatlnBal task of th- Ohuroh doos not gire this in - 
dloation. The dlroot proaenUtlon does. This is a stern testing for Church aganoias but 
it is the dlsoipliue tmdar whleh the Boards hare lived and laarnod trusteeship and rrugallty. 

d. Tlte Intaroidirob koveaient soffei ed bsoausa it was not understood and also be¬ 
cause it was difficult to understand. The different aspoots of its composite eliaractor 
shifted too and fro too confusingly. The Ksw Zra. la exposed, to ttoso satr<e perils. To specify, 
(1) There ore tsany people who do not unuirstand the donbl* obaraator of the lloTOBent, saready 
inffloiently dlscussod. And to sotao of those do understand it, it seohs that tliesa two 
isspaots of the Kovement are la duegar at times of being played off eaoh in tin interest of the 
other/. She Boards ore e;{)eatod to Binnnoe the Movement, beoause It is raising their budgets. 
|iut yll}3,000. available £rm tiie Iniero^drott nnderwriting toward raising this budget can not 
be applied to the Kev lira budget, (so it was argued at Atlantic Gity)baaav?e that but«et is 
not truly being spent toward raising th> bearrolenoss for tiis Boards. (2) Tbs general In- 
{rassl(ai is that ti.e Presbyterian Cc^nrob underwrote $l,00d,'X>'B. of the Int -rohurob expensv-s 
es the otb-.T feenoalnutlaus underwrote^ whereas of tnat ^ 1,BOO,OCX), only ^600,000. went to the 
Ih'.erdburch and ^400,000 went to the Eav -'ra, and In truth should be regarded as part of tbs 
lew i^ra debt. (B) She differenea of between the offioers of tb<' B .w Era and the 

irfioers of soae of tiie Boards with regard to the sending of funds to the '.'reasurers of tbs 
loaru and to the B w "ra Treasurer cas seen cloariy oai frankly racognisad and tbs Boards 

ava iu.iisted tiiat traaanrars and donors should be advised la referenoe to send their oon- 
rlbuttons atreot to the Boards, while reoognislng tba propriety of say one's sending to tba 

- 113 - 

{ 9 ^ 

Era Sroaaurar so dailr«l. louerul .,..«uWy kotb 

ti- Board -roasar r. rirnt. Sba So, ;;ra vaBlioatloa. aau inflaano. i«L», »ua-r 
Wi. order or auTlsed sandlinj to toa l.on ira rraasurar slona. ( 4 ) 43jen Vn» Sea i*« KoT#i»nt 
l»»{{aa, assurjuwos wore ^iTOa ti»kt it wouio to fluanoeu by liuivlouals. lUs ylUdeu to tbe 
plan. Of flnanol,»c by loan, at took. Ibis w..s foUowo. by layln« on tto doaru. that part of 
tto aspeiiM of the Row dra eonooctad wltj. tbe financial oaB,*.lgn for tto diid^jot of btoosolanM 
ud the Board were ti*a aasured that X^j would not be a.tod to fiaanoe th,; stiver work o the 
S» -.ra. thle aesuranse was explioitly given at Atlantlo City on Z^, 191S, laA 

«a* reported to ond Bade natter of record by at least one of the Board, of the Ohnroii... 

.t£da record «&8 c^cfu ly draara aa foXlosst 

**2hat tUe ->oacr&l Cc^abittoc of ths Ktiii Era X^oveoeat >iadi disouasad fully tha 
propoaad buigat of the l5ov«aeai for t£.d reBalaSii*^ alz mct^ths of the Ohuroh yrar 
oallla,; for an expenditure of ^417,719.42. It wa. atnted that the total «pendlture. 
of th.; Sew ..rn tovwient fer the year would be between ^700,003. and <f7&3,d00. 

Of this sBount ie.. than one-third would be a.seesed upon the Boards, bo Meet their 
proportiouato .hare, of ths finanoial saicyai/ja to seaure their budget.. The offtears 
of tbs h ow ..r a to aaont pointed out ci:at this wa. ooiy one of the (Unction, of the 
*wwa Mi M art x fflrisUMd-MMtxtb«txBBd that the larg«r part of it. went hou to do 
with the devGlopzaont of ttie a irltual life and the raotical efflalonoy of the 

Cisuroh, that the expense for thio uajor port of the CoBialttee’s work would not fall 

upon the oenewolenoe budget of tho Oliurohas for the yearr The off leer, of the Sew 
-ra VovoBOnt gave aesuraneos also that tne total peroentago upon the benswolenoo 
oontributions enioh would need to be aeioased would not axoaed 3 poroent. on the total 
actually reoeived ana that the oorrant year would approxinato one and ono-half peroeut. 
They gavo assureuces also tt&t t3*ls a^eoasinent would bo a pert of ana would not be 
duplicated by any esponso whieh Eight faU upon tne Boards in tJ.o evont of tho oHrtiel- 
patlon by the Cisiroh ii'; the Interchurch <.arld lovsnout, . ttentlan was o.lled to the 
fact dl.a tiiat both at this oaai’orsnRO an at ti» ''oaforoiwe of th doard with '■•he 
bynoiloal Eoroiijn i:is3ion Cualnscn on 3stuber l.t ana aid, ti.a K*'. ,-,ra iovesant ijul 
made it clear - 

1. That tho eotabf isicix»nt of I>ew :.ra, Uosnlttoc. in . ynou., x^esOyterlos 
local c'nurohos did not dispeu.o with the need of tlm fornign rioalon* CoBBittea.bDt 
randerod ths work of those Ooinnittoos thi, sore essential ana ths nore efflaient and - 

2. That sSille tho provision of n froaMrer of the Sew ^ra Xovnsont, to reoolve 
contributions under ths Bow -ra Bridget froc. such ohurc ». as Eight desi « to send 
thSE in this way and to facilitate the coliectl'On of the budjiet, had been deeeed 
noeesjary, this arranysaoht « . not neant to Interfere wltlk the work of the Boards' 
rreumrora and no pr' .rare would be exerted by tbe Eew 'ra kovaoent to divert the 
course of foreign Slsslcns CoidCwibutiuus frin the Treasurer of the Board to the 
Treasurer of the Sew hra £ ''vement.'' 

Cithout the kaowlodge or approbai of the Boards tne Sssr ::ra asked tbe last 


■Beneral Assmbly to lay the/expense of the koveoiant upon the Boards, ual they are now 
askad in aoditloh to pay 8> of all their receipts toraard tbe indebteditass of tbs Hew Ira 

and the interohnreh. 

This la not a ooD Ort ng history. One syapathises deeply with the 

IB its flx^alU pwplajJiUM, but thesa parpiaxltlae Mg«t parplaxlty. 

Csi I’bs iaat Uaaei-fci .ig»».bly on tno r•oomandntion of tho lev r.m »4o;;it«4 oart.t 
provision* »itA rat>ra to ti^ cooj^rution of tbs Boarus in tn* Ks« i.ra Covsmnit vUlob had 
Mon oarafaiiy prapar d ana ajfreoa upon biy the Sow ".ra ComnlltoB, and by tbs offioSrs of bhs 
JOBBlttss and varlo s doa d offioera. I'hsas provided for the osarty united effort of 
all, for the fall fraaaoui of donors, the fins protsotion of daslisnatod gift* and the 
Bothod of sending oontrlbutlons. let the Influonoo of the officers of ths Kovaaenc has bseti 
vaeeted steadily towaru the aaunlnsnt of these piosislone and the substitution for then 
of the centralised oomuon fund which im. been nlrejkdy discussed, Co iperatlve aove- 
ssnte both between and within dsnominatious luive again and again broken down in just thle 
way. Cooperation always involves the adjoatoeut of dlvergont views. It can only be 
■mlntnlnod When these adjusliDButs, onoe reaoh..>d, are oarefnily honored and sompnluusly kept, 

1 believe that tne ed,,aostions aiavo in this nieaoranduw will help us to conserve 
tho real elsneuts of jood in tne Hew hra Si.ovBi.ient and to oarry forward the work of the 
Olwroh in greater ofiuotiveaoas a.ui with still fuller oooperatlon. 1 have dealt With tin 
Btw ..ra In only one of lis aapskts aspeoto, however, nsciely as related to the boards and 
to the bensvolonaes of the Ohtu'oh, uosie one, 1 think, should skaiclno in the sans spirit 
and with the intaa aandor the other aspect of tns bew hra. .>bat little 1 i.ave to soy on 
tills subject can oe better said in a brief furtner statanent regarulug a larger problen, 

2h* last ieneral Asaenbly a -ijoluted a CoRjulttee of ten, oharged with the duty of 
oonslderlng tne reorganisation anu. oousolloution of the ^oards and agenolos and of reporting on 
the Skitter to the tleneral Assenbly of 1921. 

2hls ocEMittoe needs in its inportaut and dlffloult duty all the lelp tl<at It can 
gst frcm our prayers and our juutpsents. Again and again Cunaittees of the Aaienbly have 
Malt with' problen In the effort of tlie Ciuiroh to siake Its organisation nore sinpls and 
tffestlve and too often the result has been to leave tlis Baohinery of the Church more 
tucb.-rtoce. Shis long struggle has been, nevertheless, inspired by the right purpose and 
late day tne courage and. wigdcn«Beosssary for the right solution wl 1 be fonnd. Let us pray 
llat St saiy be now, Xo soluti^tn bat the right one is worth finding. Ions otaer will avail. 


^ .olotlon reatiDK oa Batoataft or pwaawa or axpatlonoy mill ftai. 

Iliera are t*o aeoUa w. loh the effcrta of the Churoh ae* I 
1. On* la til* naau of son* oei.tral guluUig a^v.noy In the life 

1 % 

ae* bean feeline after. 

of the Ohuroh. 

Ihe annnnl ohanee of nooorator, to llnitoU ftuiotlona of th 

.leniausnt ofrioara of tie 

.uaet-bly. and th. laox of any oentral ioard of oonnoel and dlraotlon, haTo left the Ci«rOh 
altboot oontlnulty of oentral le^ieroWp, or any proTlslon for tli. sindy of her ,.-en.ral 
policy ana dovolo.nent. r for th* pliant adaptation of i»r Ufa to n*. need, and unties. 
}w •*tabil8l«nt Of tl^ -xeontlvo ComUolon ens welooted by aany as a poaalble st.p toeard 
■eetlng tbla need. ifor various reasons, noeover, tno Ounrjlaslon has not moved Into tnls 
plaoa In tie Ohuroh • The Bew -..ra, bus nnaartaken scsiie meuaura of tiiese fuwitlou't but Its 
jOBble oharaotOT, its undefUiSd relatl ns to the oooloslastloal order of the OhoBOh and 
otlisr oonsiaerations nave limited Its ability to fill ti;S empty plaoe. llmoat all otlwr 
isnaninatloiis have felt th-i smoo ;.ead an., have dovlaed, more or leas euooessftilly, various 
beans of meetlu^ It* 

as w* fade the problems afresh our ovrn expnslenoa aod the asperlenoe tf tthar 
lonoalnatlona sliOuld teaoh ua some lessonsi (1) We shall Katlisr no right aolutlon out of 
ts atBoaplier* of susplolcin or dlatmst. sinoorlty, goouwlll, generosity of nine and 
(islnterestednoss of spirit are essautlal oonaltlona of a oonstruotive Jud^tent. (£) Ho 
lohsm* whlob begins by ezaiuding fr^n ellt;lblllty to this oentral aervloe of the olmroh 
Itny of the mrai best qualified to rsad'.-r auoh service oan auooeed. Sven If tbsse men are 
lilt oalled upon, the prinsiple of liielr sxoluelon la a .olaonlng prinolpl*. This al take 
183 mad* vhou all memb ra of all Boavda and hganoles were exoiuded from the oxeoutlve Uom- 
lissloii. These men ware left eligible to tho kuderatorahlp, however, anu were frequently 
ilsoted, and so oeosiDa ohalnbon of a Corarlsslou for wi.lo . they aaxa hud been deemed dle- 
Wlifledl Iha ChurcJi oannot make any progrsaauuutll ail snob foellngs and action* 
rs laid aside for good and all. (3) ZUe viiry nutur* of the a'tmoy needed for soma 
aasurs o. oontlnulty of aervloe, for uoh absolute luuelflshneas as will win t;.* Ciurcn's 
tsoluta crust, for th* hlgtiest powurs of minu anu spirit which the Church oen find, for 
slthfulness wnleh will give tuutintou y ti^ time eno thou:;ht reiulred. (4) The uutles and 
owars conforrad oist be defined with all tiM clarity poielule, provision mads for neosssary 



Mp.n<lUttr*s in an ujilii*«aol>able laumor, and tho work of tha Ooow.ltUo don* ol«aH, within 
tbo llislts ooth of its j>oirora ana Its support. 

boat kind of an as*noy iclKht bast Mat this neadT 1 balloss It would bo a 
oontral oounoll whlob would tako th*. place both of the Zieoutlwo CoBDilsblon suw of the 
Sew Sra Kofenent, to ouiislst of fifteen oeiubers, to serTO for riwo years eaoh, ell Ibis to 
roeleotlon, throe nenboro to ^ ohoaon by tha doiwsral ..ssambly eaoh yaer. Of these ittnk 
fifteen, flwa to bo the last flTS nodorators I no of wliota would be one of the three on .ually 
chosen by the U«u>rnl Aeneiibly) three to be the prosldants of the Soards of Korsliji 
llsslons, Kom missions and Sdnoc^^tlon (If any one of tneeo It a meab r by wlrtue of being 
BOderator, his place to bo filled by soce other nlnlster aleateu b^' the As...t.biylj and 
the other seven to be laymen. I'hla Ci/unoll lo siO't qosn terly and two oonseeutlre absenoes 
of any member to vacate his plaoe, to bn filled by tne neat Aesenbly. fhle Ooonoll to have 
power to employ .raoh seer<;turlal help aa it decis neoeseury. Its funo loi.a to be to 
aavlaa the Uoderator, to ettidy thn life omi notion of the Church, to promote Its efflolenoy, 
to prapaee and reoonnead to the Ceuo-al Aseerioly such aotlone ns It oeema requlreo by tbs 
reeuits of ita atuuy anu wa-k, add to anbirriww constitute an exeoutlvo oawiltte of the 
Aseombiy au Interim vltn power to not In any matter wnloh it may bellevu calls for aotlon 
without waiting' for the next meetliq; of the nsaombly. This Connell to be sxausnsd not nt 
an executive agency nor a Judicial cotaiilsaion, eutas a board.of eplrltual oouniei and of 
ClAroh life. Kore careful thoucjit would noeu to b- glwen to this statement of th 
Council's funotlnns, out 1 believe the general oonoaptlon of its oharaot-fr here set forth 
Is sound. If ws eauidOt provide such a oouuall or If ono* satabllshsd It oannot be found 

eiual to Its task our plight it desolate. If v. are part of Christ's Chnrch surety Us will 


raise up fur us/suoh requisite suooor. 

2. the other need is for a sUgler organisation of the Soards and agenolas. Ihers 
Is only one way to slmpllQr and that iJ to simplify. So attempt It oy sailtlplylng ugsnolss 
Is to try to fly In the air by goin underground. Ifonr boards oun arbraoe all the work of ths 
thurob, ths board of yoroiipa i;issl >ns, ho board of Home Vlsal one llholnolcg tlui work for 
freedmem, ths : Iselouary work of the board of Publio..tiun anu S.C, work, the work of Oiiuroh 

3 r«otl n, ti» work of Tioperanoe aod »or»l R*foni> and of iiakkath Obaorwao* and SvangeUM) 

Hki UM Joard of Muoatlm (InolodlDg tbs aduo tloaal and of tba 3oBrd of 

l>nl>ll«atiun and a,a, wk) and tlia doard of Ksllef and .ustentatloa. 7)wra ars som otbar 
sotlaltlaa vblTd slglit fall to tbs Kona Board and tho salf*>m?^orting synods^ or to tbs 
Hoard of F.dwoatlon, or to tbs propossd Coonoll or to taa Boards In ooopsratlon. 

"'kit wottld not naks the work of either the UoBa Board or of tbs 3oard of Tunoattoo 
aoro Intrloata or bnaty than tha work of the t reign Board alroadjr Is. 7baaa four Boards 
oould by a slaple oooiiaratlro ouoatlttae take orer at a grant sawing of mnnsy and a grant 
iaoraaso in affloienoy tha work of the bonaw l noe buugat. She Bind of the Ctiuroh oonld 
grasp olearly tkls organisation of the work,bn.l its dofinito and distinot wtada oonld ba 
prao.ted wlthoot oonfUsion and with ttew power. Bono of tba prasent aetlTitlaa of tbs 
Cburoh would naea to be glvsn up. All oould be better oorrelated and more eoanoBloally 
sdBinlsterad. There oould be larger gifts for suoh a slnple and ooBprsheuslva reorgan¬ 
isation of tba Uborab's work tban dan not; be seoured for a oosnnn benoTolenoa pool ooTorlng 
in Inoreasing list of odBinlstoring and expending ogenoles. Tbase four boards oobld oonduot 
in effaotlTO Bagaslns with suppleBontury publioations and tbs nasd of propsr IntorpratatiTO 
lharob pnbliolty oould be oarad for by tha seoratablao of the Onanoll or by tha ooopsratlwa 
I'xositteo of tha doaords. 

Thasa two proposals of tho osntral Cannoll and of tha eonsulldatlon of tho 
loerds Into four, deal squarely and fondasieat.illy with our aotual problams. Tba arg nouts 
kt^lnst suob proposals my trltuspb now as they have trluDohod before. du. tho day will oobs 
lusn thesa nu or nore radlonl proposals than those will prswall, In the interost of tbs 
limpliolty and spiritual offlolenoy of the Churoh. 

-C . 0 p I 


Oatvter 26, 1920. 

Br Jloljert E. Speer, 

166 Fifth Are., 

Hew TerE City. 

Bear Bootor Speer, 

X haye already aoAziowledged receipt of your meiaoraiula on the Hew Era 
Kovemant and the organiiation of the Churoh, and I am aTalling myself to-day 
of the privilege you extended to me of giving you my fhanJc comments upon the 

X have tried to approach the subject In as personal and unoffloial a 
way as It Is possible for me to do. Tour effort to consider the subject In the 
same manner Is ccmmendable, although it is Inevitable that all your thinking 
should be colored by your complete Identification with the Foreign Hiss ion en¬ 
terprise of the Churoh. X, too, confess the difficulty of trying to detach it¬ 
self from the inqolications of my present position, although my Hew Era Secretaryship 
is purely temporary and it is only the sheerest sense of duty that keeps me where 
X am. 

An examination of the prlnci les and relationships involved in the whole 
benevolent and administrative life of the Church is in order, at any time. Surely 
no one ought to be charged with being "divisive or out of sympathy" merely because 
he presents his candid views. Due regard, hiwever, should he given to tbs loyal 
carrying forward of the enterprise as it has been officially approved, and the crit¬ 
icism should be so. directed As to accomplish its real purpose and so timed as not 
to interfere with the legitimate carrying out of authorized action, especially when 
that action involves large financial results. 

Tour outline of the three elanents of great value in both the Xnterchuroh 
World Movement and the Hew Era Movement is interesting and justifiable. I do not 
believe you are warranted, however, in assuming, as you do, such a close relation 
in spirit and method between the Interchuroh and the Hew Era Movement. My views 
are as you have indicated, at variance with youre upon this point. The Hew Era 
Movement, as X believe it oan be demonstrated, arose out of the denominational 
activity of our Churoh by an orderly and steady going process, even though there 
were startling expansions of various phases of the Churoh program lnvolved| Tie 
Hew Bra Movanent certainly did reoegnlze the fact that there had been a great meas¬ 
ure of oeoperation between the Boards and Agencies, and while the purpose of the 
Movement, as it was originally formulated, wae not primarily to coordinate the 
activities of the Churdh but to carry them forward on an expanding scale, the Hew 
Era Movement did achieve definite and far reaching results, in oo^eratlon as ym 
have indlwated. Xf the supporters of the Hew Bra Movement have been guilty ef 
oXalmlng that the advance in benevolent contributions, so slgnlfloant and unprecedented 
as they are, were due to the activities of Hew Era forces alone or even chiefly, 
they ought to be rebuked. If, however, they maintain, as X think most of 
that the increase was due to the m ovement of the Spirit of Cod using the established 
agemoies and the newer agency touching all phases of Churoh life, they are surely 
justified in their contention. 

The summary of the erroAS of the Interchuroh. World Movement which ym 
Intimate has recently been set forth by an impartial Committee, suggests, by its very 
statement, to any perso^fclready critical of the Hew Era Movement ttot these saM 
errors are being made in the Hew Era Movement. X veiy much fear that yojr pr - 


Jr r mlatanea under the name of "Interohuroh ml.Ulcea" 

orltloally minded folic to aaaume, without due 
^ arrora are found in the New Era aotiTlty. HowoTer it 

r? ®^® tai.lloatlon hut ar, .uesaatlnic acme of 

the interohurch arrora which the Hew Era ia duplloating. I wonder if tirTwin not 

n oatalpgue you hare outlined and ajply 

It mjuatlfiahly, aa 1 hare indioatedT Would it not he wlaer for the peace and 
unity of the Church for you to point out only tftoae arrora which you really hellere 
are paralleled in the New Era Movement? j i <» 

Talcing up your apeciflo pointa, 1 come to the one outlined on page 4 of 
your manuaoript, viz, the neoeaalty for the clarification of the purpoae of tlm How 
EraMovoaent, Kay I categorically anawer a few of your qnestlona and then comment 
upon my anawera? 

Ia the Mew Era Movement one more agency added to the already eiiating 
Boards and Agencd ea? Yea» It is a temporary agency added for a period of five 

Or, is it simply a coordination of these? Hot simply such. 

Is It both a new agency and a coordination of the old ones? It is a now 
agency with a tei^porary mission, in whose fulfillment there is involved a certain 
definite coordinatinn of the older agencies. 

Hot merely from the beginning of the Hew Era Movanent with tlm ueneral 
Assembly at Columbus, but in every succeeding report and, indeed, in almost every 
meeting of the Committee, it has been maintained that the function of this new ana 
temporary agency has been "se to promote the various activities of the Church in the 
Individual Churches, Presbyteries and Synods as to accomplish the whole taslc of the 
Church'*. To the large extent to which the Boards and Agencies of the General 
Assembly are Involved in administering tlie whole tash of the Church, this new agency 
serves them. To the extent in which the sum of their activities did not and does 
not cover the whole task of the Church, it carries on still further activity 
supplementing that carried on by the individual Boards. To be specific, the inculoa^ 
tlon of the principles and methods of stewardship; the organization of the individual 
Church, not merely through the Every Member Canvass but by Group Organization; the 
setting goals fif thb Individual Church In terms of achlevemeut in the oommunlty, as 
well as of financial achievement; the pweparation of a suggestive program of Churoh 
activity, involving all the interests of the Church; the preparation and carrying 
out of the coordinated program of Mission Study, involving the wxrious egenoleo 
having missionaiy enterprises; the stimulation of the individual Churchin the matter 
of its individual financial responsibility so aa to seonre more adequate ocmpensatIon 
for the minister; the release of a spirit that pays Churoh debts and impreves manses 
and enlarges equipment; in short, a spirit which organizes Itself in a program cover¬ 
ing all the work of the Churoh;- these things have be n dom by the Hew Bra Movement 
as a part of its fundamental activity. You have evidently overlooked the fact, 
for you make no mention of it, that last year the individual Churches contributed for 
their own oongregptlonal expenditures nearly Eive Million Dollars more than they 
over contributed in any one year. I could submit to you a detailed and amazinipa 
record of such items. All of this was a of the Hew Bra Pitogram. It ia a part 

which la absolutely vital to every other part. The fundamental oonoeption of the 
Hew Era Movement which you feel eught to be clarified, may be very definitely stated, 
"t* assist the individual Churoh to function along the line of the whole task of the 
i^le Church". It Is out of Churohes that have been stinklated by the aotitltles 
suggested in the preceding sentences, that the increased funds for the Boards am 

Pernanent Agencies must come. 



statement oonoeming the exj?endltnra of the funds prerlded this fleoal 

me^i^ ^“4 reported to the CemLrtL 

L ! f* 21-22, is not accurate. It tos definitely stated 

Of y«“ ^ ™=li to do t.lth the financial ln*er- 

® Agencies. It tos pointed out that the entire Hew Era 

organisation TOs oottinuing to spend a large, if not a major uortion of its time In 

t^^t^ effort. The contention that the New Era staff made was 

that the #153,000 remaining in the Interchurch Trust Fund must he used altogether 

^f ^ thll ®®’' asd that aotmty in he- 

^ A ^ ‘^* “®* ’•elleve you are justified in Interpreting the 

MoTanent outlined hy the General Assemhly of 
1918, as fundamental ocnfision". I am herewith quoting again that action; 

"WHEREAS, The world's war tragedy is primarily and essentially an affair 
of he human spirit, haring taken its origin there, its greatest misery helng suffered 
there, its portentous issues for good or ill, for individuals and tne whole world 
helng determined there; and 

"WBBREAS? The world agony has turned multitudes hack to faith in God and 
lmmorta^.ity, a faith that, often meagor and inarticulate, needs and waits for the 
Churoh to fill it out and relate it to the organized forces of Clirist's Kingdom- 
and ' 

"WHSHHAS, This supreme crisis in the spiritual history of ir.ani.<r'.i presents 
itself largely in the forms and terms of physical needs, of coshat with soolid vices, 
of readjustment of soobl relations and eoonomioal oonditlons, and, in our country ' 
especially, of the necessity of achieving a higher moral and spiritual, as well as pol¬ 
itical, unity of the diverse elements of our population; and 

"WHEREAS, These conditions plalzdy oonstltute a solemn and Instant call ef 
God to His Oburoh for extraerdinary service and sacrlfloe and for such enlargemait ani 
readjustment of its work as snail make it of the higiiast value to the nation and 
adequate to the world's needs, therefore he it 

"RESOLVED (1) That a Committee of twenty seven he constituted by the 
General Aasoi.hly, nine from the Executive Gonmisslon, nine from the Boards and other 
agencies, and liine from the Churtai at large, and that the following nominations 
he submitted by the official conference of the Executive Comnissiou and the representa¬ 
tives of the Boards to bs elected by the Assembly as membsrs of the Committee, viz, 


Rev. William L. Slclnan, D.D., Rev. William R. Taylor, D.D., Rev. Aquilla’r;ebb,D.D. 

Rev. Joseph A. Stevenson, D.D., Rev. Charles Wood, L.D.^ lir. John T.Hauson, 

Colonel D.S.Alexnnder, ICr. Aj-tbur Curtiss James. 

"Representing THE BC/vRDS AKD OTHER ACEHCIES; - Foreign Missions, Rev.A.W. 
Halsey, D.D., Home Missions, Rev. John A. Marquis, D.D., Publloation and Sabbath Sobool 
Work, Rev. Alexander Henry, D.B., Church Erection, Rev. David C. Wylie, D.D. ,■ 

General Board of Education, Rev. HugJ; T. Kerr, D.D., Relief and Sustentatlon, Rev. 
William Hiram Eoulkes, D.D.; Fraedmen, Rev. J.M.Caston, D.D.; Temperanoe, 

Prof. Charles Scanlon; Committee on Evangelism, Rev. George C. Muhy, D.D. 

"RSPRS3EHTIHC THE CHUB® AT LAB(21 - Rev. John W. Maolvor, D.D., Rev. 
B.T.V.Holmes, D.D., Hev.J.W.Cochran, i.D., Mr .A.H.Vdiit#ard, Mr.A.R.Hiodl, 

Mr. John Willis Baer, Mr. Robert Garrett, MrJlohert Jobnston, Mr. Cyrus H.MoCoj-mlok. 

Modsrator of the Ssnoral Assambly and the Stated Clerk to he 
to he CoMnittee. the Co^lttee to elect It. oen Chai^n 

^ooLlhiraft« <^118 S^eoutive Oonjnlsslon ac e.on 

rr.?arf^ O !* I »<ijourBment of the Aeeembly, thl. Commlttae to prejpare 
»J to i f noaement of the vdiole Church to ooTOr a pehlod of firfyears 

and to be underiakan under the name of "I'he Hew Era Expansion Program". ’ 

program shall embrace within the seeps of its 
thf t oongregations, the Presbyteries, the Synods, 

the hoards and other agencies of our Chur oh with special reference to family 
religion, era^elism, education, missions. Social serrioe and stewardship. Ihe 
ommittee shall also present a plan for prowlding such a substantial increase in 
the various Church funds as may be necessary fully to carry out the Expansion 

.... n "RcSOLTSD (3) (Phat the Committee report to the Executive Committee at 
the Commission s Next Fall meeting, and that the Commission, if the way be olear 
have authority to i«t the plan Into Immediate aotlon.'* ’ 

The purpose of the Hew Era Movement was thus primarily to promote 
a program of activity in the individual Church, Presbytery and Synou and inevitably 
therefore to secure an Inoraaee of funds in order to enable it te carry out the 
program. There is, howsver, I believe a measure of confusion which has been 
made inevitable by the action of the recent Ceneral Assembxy, which you orroneousiy 
say the Hew am Conmittee sou^t anu which in reality was sought by tne rspresentm- 
tlves of the Boards and Agencies, in their personal appearance before the Committee 
on Bills and Overtures, via. that tne Boards and Agencies should specifically pay 
all expenditures of the Hew Era Eovaient for this present fiscal year. I believe 
that even this confusion could be resolved, if It could be made plain tliat the 
Ceneral Assembly had both an eooleslastioal and a moral right te authorize its 
permanent Boards and .'agencies to do certain things coeperatively, which no one 
of them would be Justified in doing alone, an the ground t'nat the doing of these things 
together would definitely help the work of each of the agencies. It certainly 
would be olearsr if the expenditures for the carrying on of the Hew Era prtgrua 
ware to be provided direct y in tlie benevolences of the Church. 1 fear very much 
that anything 1 may have to say on this matter will not meet your views but I hsre 
tried te state my own in the foregoing paragraphs. 

Taking up your second criticism. 1 am obliged to say that, in my 
judgment, you have very much overstated any effort to make the Hew Era Movement 
one centralised collecting and receiving agency for all the benevolent funds of 
the Church. It is needless be admit that the budget, with the fixing of peroonb- 
ages involved in the very act of establishing the budget, is an integral part of the 
New Era Movement, so far as its appeal for the total benevolence of the Church. 

It is not true, however, that there Is a purpose te obliterate all designation 
of gifts to particular causes or to distribute out of a cemmon benevolenoe fund 
all of the contributions of the Church te the various Boards and Agencies. We believe 
in the necessity of a central receiving agency and af® entirely willing to let it 
develop normally in the life of the Church. The various resolutions whloh have 
been broui^t forward by the Hew Era Movement may seem to have sought the above 
mentioned an*. In reality, the officers of the Hew Era Movement, so far as I know, 
ars scrupulougly trying to fellow the action of the Assembly and sf the Ctmomittee in 
seeing that gifts go according to the will of the donor. Paragraph (o) under article 
8 in the Haw Bra report this year, is the one under whloh we ars lining and woiktog. 

It is not our .purpose to withhold in March jOi funds received by the Central Agency 
and use than for equallaatlon purposes. We are proposing, because we have boon so 
Instnuotad, only te use such funds, whether in Hoveniber or March, as by the will 
of th 

of the donor, have been made avaiiahin -i. 

iag and ccotinuine t« distribute designated'*'* distritat- 
sent to us, according to that percenS! of 

the very resolution that you drafted nns 4 ^ liaixd, under the terms of 

imously agreed to by the Hew Era Committee the°°Oentr^i'b 

the Committee alters its instructloii<! naa’a i, ®®“tral EeceiTing Agent will, unless 
be used ■■so to assume is fer ^ possmfthf 
in accordance with the ratio of fhe tfal LdSf'*’“lf if 

prepare the pledge card for the nf further purpose to 

eral Assembly and "to the mutual saMsfaction oft^ l“atruotlon of the Gen- 

“r -rS' 

s s: B il-fH 

I have read with interest the paragrajli from the letter reoeived bv vcnr 
BMrd, enclosing a large oontrlbution. It does not seem to me that the soirl/sf 

^ ™ fHe had a perfect rl^t ‘to senf 
the mmey direct to the Board of Foreign Missions and have it all go for the thliK 
for ^ioh he garo it, and you would not be narranted in glTlng a dollar of it to anir 
ottor cause. On the other hand, he ought nototo desire to defeat the purpose of sc^ 
othw ohuroh or Individual who honestly believes that when the total budget la made of 
certain aj^roved items, each agency ought to get its equitable share of the total, 
your donor 3 refusal even to have the gift "reported" la the thing I oritlolae. 

^ ^ am not mistalran, the Foreign Beard Itself, with its voltunlnous special 

designations applies the prlnolple of equalization. If a Church undertakes the sup¬ 
port of a mlaalomry in Korea that is not added ts the amount that the Board would 
otherwise give to Korea but is Inoluded in the Board's appropriation. This of oourse 
applies only to budget items fbr any individual donor would have the right, under the 
present Hew Era plan, to give any sum of money he desired to objects outside of the 
budget and it would not need to be ooimted In the budget, I.E. a donor might give 
a new college, or a new hone to the Board of Ministerial Belief, or build a university 
in China, and none of these items would be Inoluded in the budget of the year, unless 
they fead been definitely projected in making the totals. I do not see how the plan, 
under which we are honestly trying to work today collided with the honorable iustlnots 
which, I agree with you, ougiht to be fostered and not repressed. 

As to your oonolusions outlined on page 7, I have only this suggsstlon of 
dlfferenoe. I would say that all Churohes and donors should ^e aitirely free to 
send their gifts direotly to the Ireasurers of the Boards ard Agencies or to the 
Central Beoelving Treasury, by which all gifts will be distributed aooordigg to the 
aotlou of the General Assembly, to which I have already referred. 1 am entirely ready 
to agree to this, so far as emj/ influence I have. There will be, for years and years 
to come, the two wlements in the Church, - those who want their gifts ta go speolfloally 
designated and directed, add those Who are willing to have their gifts used for eipaliza- 
tion purposes. If we have seemed to err on the side o f magnlflylng the Central 
Beoelving Agenqy, it is on|^ because we are the only ones who oaa bring it to the atten¬ 
tion of the Churohes. We mean to live up both to the spirit and the letter of the law. 
Further, 1 agree with you that the budget process by means of whloh one agency expands 
its budget 40054, while another expands only 20 or SOjJ, is not rational, unless there is 
some unexampled emergenoy^ Of oourse, 1 do not agree that the Hew Era Movement designates 
its expendlturee for one purpose and proposes to spend it for another; nor do 1 agree 
that its percentage of 8.0454 is purely arblti;ary. That is the exact percentage thst was 

formed on the basis of its approved budget, a budget submitted to the Executive Commission 
and composed of dozens of pages of itemized details. 

- 6 - 


^ your tMrd paragraph on page 8, and oasaot penult yon to 

express ^ more clearly than 1 my do UQraelf, the oonrlotlon that all our fanda 
are a religious trust and that they mat he eaoredly guarded. So far aa I know. 

in the Kew Bra llorement, including mn like 
llr. ***■• Harhiaon, Mr. Manaon, Ikr. Hloholaon and Mr. Wonaoott, have Seen aa 

oonsolentloua ana as sincerely guided hy a conviction of truat aa aiy of those 
who have been critical of the methods we have used, It la undeniably true, also, that 
the Hew Era Movanent o^ht to jse nslnting machinery when it is at all adeaiate. 

We have built up very little of/supper organisation. To aubatltute an efficient 
piece of maoMnery for a manifest lack of machinery, surely ought not to be thought 
wasteful. Dr. John McDowell, who has pronounced convictions upon the vdiolo matter, 
agrees quite fully with me upon this point, via. that for aume time to come we 
must have a certain additional organization if we want to do the thirds we are now 
doing. 1 agree with him that we should proceed as rqpldly as possible to a 
Synodical basis. 

I As f&T as I tbe Movement is not using i^inds ftrcm the treasuries 

I of the Boards which are not directed to advancing the causes for which thcee 
I funds are a trust. It would be clearer, however, if the General Assembly were 
to authorize a certain percentage or a certain definite sum for the expenditures 
of the New Bra Movement, during the romainiug years of its existence. Hew Era 
has the same right to a percentage distribution of a fund raised under the strong 
appeal of the missionary and educational task of the Oliuroh tint any of the other 
agencies has, provided its work is aa integral and prpxoer part of the enterprise 
of the Church. I could turn your statement the other way and assert that a 
number of the agencies of the Church have received vastly increased funds uizlBr 
the strong ^peal of the New Era Movement that they never got otherwise. 

Beferrlng to Paragraph 4, page 9. The remedy for the confusion in¬ 
dicated in arable sub (1) is to have the outline of the fundamental character of 
the Movement as origiially approved by the Assembly, reiterated Instead of being ohal4 
lenged. any thought of playli^ one side of the Movement against the other is novel 
to me. Punds are to be provided this year by ttie Boards collectively because of the 
crisis of the debt which is upon us. The ^153,000 remaining, of course is available 
only for the specific phase of our work dealing with the budget of this year. Tou 
are right in saying that the Church ought to vmderbtand that onij^ #600,000 went to the 
Interohuroh and that the #400,000 is a part of the debt incurred because of Hew Era 
aotlvity. We must make this plair to the Chur(Si as your article on the "Debt of Honor' 
will do. 

Dr. W. S. Marquis in his letter, which I am enclosing, has dealt with the 
apparent blolatlon of our duty with reference to the advising of Church treasurers 
te send direct to the Central Eeoeivlng Agency in the printed document we sent out. 

I be}.ieve his statement clears us perfectly on ihis point. 

Taking up your catalogue of the various steps taken by the Hew Era Movement 
to finance itself and coming to your closing statement that the New Era Movement asked 
the last General Assembly to lay its whole expense upon the Boards, I have already 
stated that this was not our proposal. I do not believe, however, that you are just- 
Ifieu in assuming that ail of the benevolences o« the Church belong to the Boards. 

If 8404 ^ of the total benevolent budget fts set for the paying of debts, I know it 
is easy to assume that this, money should have gone to the J>oard3 but I do not believe 
the assus^tlon is warranted. 


page 11. dSv^”aoT*'' *“” paragraph 6, 

of the Movement is oonoernad that th^ \^' *° ^ Imowledge of the officers 

the anmlment of the provU^Sn^^d^ steadily toeard 

fn:r a- ai?*^^: 7z~ 

by votes. 2he Hew Era Movanent has “es’’^^nsrrf“hr 

lfo^ot“r!tL^J be safttot covenants. 

of its officers and staff, has made many Htotakea; soroe of these liave been aorvaeted 

ixi n\z LidTf“:^t“4Lt^r:r:L aTis“tr:%“L:'iL^ fi\::e“rrse‘“ 

which have been^ 

oonstmotive suggestions. It interests me to noteliow 
to they parallel nor o-«i reflections. I rejoice to agree with you that we must 
“■*“°®P'^®re of suspicion and distrjst and that we must be ready to 
find tb@ lieat solution, wnetiisr It be the oonTenient one or not* Furt ^er I a^a^ee 
that wtot is good in the Hew Era Movement and wh*t is good in the Boards Ind Agencies 
^ht to be conserved in some permanent form. It seaia a pity to me that the Hew B» 

pemitted to exist 12 months withott being torn up by the roots, aid in 
thi« the third year of its life, having been reoor^nized to the satisfaction o/ the 
BoBBds and x.genoles, it must now submit to another process of reorganisation. However 
if it is a movement, it must willingly ad^t itself to ohai^ if only the highest good 
of the Chunch may be acoomijilshed. 

There are two psychological issues which are inseparable in the thinking 
of any free peoxile. They have th^ir roots deep down in the colonial and early histoiy 
of our nation. They have been equally manifest in the developfiing life of our Clnirch 
as in the political sphere, fte call them the conception of national unity on one hand, 
and that of states' rights on the other. How can we secure a great national uni^ with 
centralized responsibility and therefore power and on the othe r hand preserve and 
even stimulate t he individual units? We have tried to do this in our Presbyterian 
polity, in a General Assemoly embodying the lormer view; and in synods and presbyteries 
embodying the latter view. We have nad and always will have a conflict between the 
twp types of view. Our church will only grow and thrive as it holds both thzxten 
ij?*a of these views perpetually active. The Hew Era Movement has definitely realized 
this situation and has attempted in far-reaching ways to preserve and maintain cur 
national denominational unity. The budget has emphasized that unity. The Issuance of 
a rogrsm of church-wide activity has also added to this aspect of our policy. On 
the other hand, the Movement has stimulated the indlvliiial churches and the presbyteries 
in very definite ways. Whatever future form our organized benevolent and missionary 
life is to take, it must oontinue to hold both of these divergent views in active 
relationship to each other. Therefore, any scheme which involves further oentrallzation, 
of authority without a corresponding decentralization will fall. In Whatever form the 
good things of the present Movement are to be preserved we must not overlook the aspect 
of Individual initiative. 1 know that my views are not different from yours on this 

jattoTo I am aaggeatliig this however, in order that you may see why I feel that 
any orsaaiaatlon that is to oarry aa. the worlt of the Ke* Sra Itovament must have in 
It elements of representation from the Churoh at large not oonneoted with the es- 
tftbliahed agenoies of the General Assembly which so fxilly embody the oonoeption of 
(jsntralisad power. 

Kay 1 outline briefly my own views as to the ideal plan. I confess Itseane 
go fh^ off, when 1 view the temper of men and the ramifications that are present, 
that it seems to be as utopian as a full functioning League of Nations• 1 iiave thought 

of four benevolent ana administrative Boards, substantially those named by yourself and 
a fifth Board of fressotiun and Coordination. The latter to be oom > 03 ed of approximately 
3 members of each of tlie other four, with & other msm-bers chosen from the 
Church at large, to represent those outlying Interests, suoh as 'Jynodloal ana Pres- 
tytsrial Groups that are not represented 3n any of the Boards. In my judgnent, no 
plan will oarry the mind and conscience of the Church that still further centralises 
the administration of the Cliuroh without giving added rooognition to the outlying elements 
of Church life. The functions of tiiis Board of Eromotion and Coordination should he 
explicitly laid dovsn in Its charter and should include the very things for wnioh the 
Haw lira Movement was launched. It would coordinate as far as it could bo ooordinated, 
the actual promotive mrlc of the Boards and Agenciss. It would pronote in the Bynod and 
the Presbytery and the individual Church, the whole program of the Ciiurch; it would 
have definite limitations of function but would enjoy the assurance that its authorised 
functions would be jnalntained. It would partioulsrly coordinate tie entire field force 
of the Presbyterian Church so that as sp edily as xiossibls, on a Synodical and Pred>ytarlal 
basis, ^rtiatever might be the other duties of various field men, they would affora def¬ 
inite representation in every area in behalf of the Board of Coordination and Prouotlon, 
in the carrying out of the whole task of the Church. If this Board of Premotion and 
Coordination were to he formed and were to oarry on its legitimate functions, it mlg^t 
supercede 4ha Executive ecmmisslon, although it would not be imperative that it should. 

As to your suggested plan of a Council, oompoeed of the Presidents of three of 
the Boards and five ex-Moderators and seven men from the Church at large. This might 
aooompiiah the same purpose. Ky one fear would be that luxlei' the lUitllne you aai e given, 
although you said it is only tentative, tiie Council would not have sufficient poser given 
to it, fully to carry out its tash. If It is eracted, it should be thonough-going in 
its organisation and should liave certain dele.gated posers which it will fully oarry out, 
and Which will be recognized by the Boards and ths church at large. 

The foregoing, however, is ths ideal and it may he a long time beforo it la 
roallzed, Vftia.t is to tahe the place of it until it oomos? In ansiwr, may I ash another 
question - Why can we not oarry out a suggestion I made in a foregoing paragraph, vis. 
oheok ourselves at every possible point, in order to insure the faithful and honost 
performance of the task as it has been given to us? Then, having aooaptod the trust, 
let us go forward under our orasont organization, modifiring it for the owning year, as 
little as possible, in order to avoid furthe. agitation and also tp produoe the utmost 
effloianoy and real ooonouiy, which involve the wise ssending of money, as well as the 
saflng of money. lo suoh an effort as this, so long as I shall have anything to do with 
the Movement, I pledge myself. With you, it is unthiiiirahle to me that tut great Cnuroh 
will not be found equal to its tash. 

Tilth sincere esteem. 

Faithfully yours, 

Sllllam Hiram Foulhes, 

General Beoretary. 



i^ataR-yfMa (» HiOpoaiL 20 PKcmiiu cssiqbatioh ajb KiiSRjiRfiD squalizaik* 

I -- - - 

OP Gim 

Sue preaent affopt cm the part of soma to Bake the New Sra the one 
oentraliaed oolleotlns and raoelslng agency for all the benevolent fnnde of the 
Church through which all such funds must he raised, to obliterate all designation of 
gifts to particular causes or objects «,ether these gifts oome from ohurshes or in¬ 
dividuals, and to distribute pro rata out of a ocnmion benevolence fund the sums which 
each Board and agency is to have for the work committed to it, is an effort which is 
wrong in principle, imjossible in practice, and undesirable in nesulti The alter¬ 
native is not unbridled individualism and a omipatitive appeal by the causes of the 
Church. The alternative, Wi.ioh the extreme views now being pressed reject, is a 
wise and effective combination of the two principles of order an/^ freedom, I sball 
return to thin true solution. 

The effort just described has not been overstated. The seoretaries of 
the Hew 3ta and saoe memoers of its committee have again and again frankly avowed this 
as their ideal and endeavor. P.eaolutiou after resolution which have been brought fir- 
ward with regard to the percentage basis of the budget, the form of subscription cards, 
the substitution of Kew 3ra Treasurers for Board Treasurers as rocsiwing agents,the 
withholding by the Hew 3ra of all funds received in Karoh to use them far equalization 
purposes in tae incomes of the Boards, the effort to levy upon funds sent by donors 
directly to the Boards in the interest of a pooled equalization plan have all avowedly 
looked toward the end described. 

But any plan which deprives donors either dlreotly or by indirection of 
their right and power to he the trustees and administrators of their own gifts if they 
so desire is wrong. Any donor who wants to give to apy definite cause should be free 
to do so and he can not honorably be frustrated in his purpose to help that cause by 
any device which withdraws from it enough receipts to offset his contribution. 

Be.iors are already becoming aware of this danger and are requiring that if 

part of their gifts has to be transferred under a percentage scheme to other causes 
they should be returned to them. Eare is an illustrative letter received by our Board 

«ltb. a lurge oontrlbutloa: 

"®his ajnoulit is to be used exclusively for the above purpose and Is not to bo 
reported to the Hew Sra nor is the amount to be divided in any way with any other 

ind this oansideration of moral equity does not apply alone to individuals kho send 
their gifts directl,; to one of the Boards ■ It applies also to many who give through 
ohurch offerings. Ihey are not aware when they put ten dollars in tiie offerings for 
Borne ISissions tliat under the plan which is being pressed Home Klssions will get only 
one fifth of that amount from that donor. Under the plan proiosed, in order to be 
allowed to give two dollars to Home ISissions a donor ranat give eight dollars to the 
other Boards and agencies. If two dollars Is all he has to give. Hone Kiss ions will 
get only forty cents of it. iie have no right to im lose on the Church a sohame which 
takes away from the Churches and their masibers the privilege of giving aooorulng to 
their own sense of duty and stewardship. 

She proposed plan is not only wrong. It Is impraotioable. It cannot be 
applied to the self-supporting synods 4n Homs Mission bork. She Ifery principle of 
separate synodical financial responsibility was the repudiation of this plan. And 
the Home Board wisely fostered this definite synodical allocation of gifts and af 
duties. Jinri yet the sums for synodical self-support are made a part of the He^ Era 
budget and are included in he determination of the ratio in which the onuyohesare 
asked to give th/ou^ they are utterly bey nd the reach of any equalization process. 

In other fields than synodical Home Missions the proposed plan is found impraptlon^i-®* M 
Many o ngregations and individuals support home or foreign missionaries or hoie' cr 
foreign mission stations. Friends of particular colleges give to their needs. Per¬ 
sonal Interests and ties lie back of these relhtionships. So obllt irqte the designa¬ 
tion of gifts is to collide with an irreppesaiole and every way honorable instinct 
which ou^t to be fostered, not repressed. She pro osed plan will simply drive donors 
out of the church altoge.her or will lead them to give wholly apart from the banetolense 


budget of tho oliuroh* l 

And the pro losed plan is undesirable in its result. The experience of 
churohes which have wurked with it for years is available. It fails to eduo*ts In 

- 3 - 


intelligent Imowleage of tne wors of the Church anu in responslhllltjr for it, Batio 
gtvlng has its values, hut it is within llmlta. It aoes not call forth the eaorlfioe 
of the ohnroh. It proposes within the Chul-oh just that dlslnteeration of alatlnot 
responsibility which the Hew lira guarded against in its agreement with the Interotauroh 
when it declined to accede to the idea of a great interdenominational benevolesoe fund 
to be handled and distributed by a oantral agency. The right and wise oourse is to 
encourage intelligent, parsoual giving in every way, to buila up behind every activity 
of the Chnrch the largest body of deep conviction and support. 

The right solution of the problem lies in a clear recognition both of the need 
of order and of thv; right and desirabillt;,- of freedom. Ihe doard of Foreign Missions 
was compelled to w rit of the problem in its specialized fiild years ago. It made the 
effort to have all the foreign mission gifts of the Churches ana of individuals con¬ 
tributed to cue undesignated fund. The effort was futile. ither a different system 
bad to be devised or many donors would givo their money outside the Hoard, or would 
not give it at all. The solution was to allow donors to designate their gif s within 
the total budget of the boara, and to assure them of the total application of their ^ifts 
to the objects designated or if the object was outside the budget and the doners was 
unwilling to accept an object within, then either to approve the outside gift or 
to return it. 

In the case of the Hew bra, 1 be Lieve the solution is perfectly slmcle. 
Churdhes and donors should be encouragea to the fbilest extent to provide the full 
amount of the Budget and within that Budget to consider for thomsdves their own 
obligations and responsibilities and to designate their gifts. Such designations 
should be souupnlously regarded. All churches ana donors should be encouraged to 
send their gifts flreotly to the Treasurers of the Boards ana agencies. There should 
also be a treasurer of the Hew 2ra to whom individuals or organizations desiring to da 
so, may send their contribution to be divided as they desire, either aooording to the 
ratio of the budget, or, if they wish, in any other ratio, or for purposes of equaliza¬ 
tion. Let there be rocm for giving by those who want to trust others with the distribu¬ 
tion of their gifts and also by others who wish to distribute their oiSu 

Another foatnre of the prcjiosed plan is Its ideal of one oolleoting and dis- 
trihnting agency for all the Boards. She reasons against this are nanifold non. Ho 
one can say vhat the future developqient of the Church may make vise. But today vuch 
a scheme tlinows away too much that hus been gained by sacrifice and fidelity in tne past 
and its cccpensatory promises are too insecure. Such living institutions as have been 
built up in our church are too precious to imperil, too difficult to restore. It may 
fairly he asked vhether any Board or agency of the Church which has not so distinct 
a trust and task that these must he laid clearly and nlstinotly upon the Intelligence 
and conscience and benevolence of the Churcu Is needed or a distinct agency. Cer¬ 
tainly there is no administratis* necessity for some of them, ilhey c uld easily he 
made departments of other Boards. i!he argument for their separata existence nuld seem 
to be dissolved if they have no distinct and effective appeal to make to the Church 
for support. This question, however, will he taken up in the second secon of this 

The wise course is not to all w the Hew iSra to drift into on effort to 
b§come the custodian ami distributor of tho benevolent funds of the Cliurch nor to 
subordinate thepprinolple of the intelligent education and freedom of the churches to 
the prlnoi le of a ppolea benevolence dirootea from above. 

Hovember 24, 1936 

Mr. Roger H, Williams, 
40 Wall Street, 

Hew York City. 

My dear Mr, Williams: 

It is a pleasure to vn'ite 
suggestions with regard to the best 
benevolences of our Church. 

in reply to your request for any constructive 
method of dealii^ with the problem of the 

fburob V : to have a careful survey of the history of our 

from the beginning in the natter of its benevolences. Even a brief outline 
of this history may be of use. Up to 1837 "The Board of Missions" was the onlv 
apnoy of the General Assembly for carrying on the work of Missions at home and 
abroad. As a matter of fact its work was altogether at home. The foreign mission¬ 
ary work prior to 1837 vras carried on by the Western Foreign Missionary Society of 
the Synoa of Pittsburgh, which was absorbed by th^ Board of Foreign Llissionsj 
established by the Assembly in 1837. The Board of Education was organized by the 
General Assembly in 1819 "to assist Presbyteries and associations in educating 
pious youth for the Gospel ministry both in their academical and theological 
courses. The Board of Publication was erected in 1839 "to publish such works, 
permanent and periodical, as are adapted to promote sound learning and true 

ministerial relief began at the first meeting of the Synod 
of Philadelphia in 1717 when *'A Fund for Pious Uses" v/as established. The Board of 
Ministerial Relief, now the Board of Pensions, was not organized, hov:ever, until 
1876. In these early years there does not seem to have been any consideration of 
a benevolence plan as a v/hole. The various causes were presented to the Church, 
and the churches responded in accordance with their own freedom of responsibility 
as set forth in the Constitution of the Church. Some Boards employed financial 
agents to visit the churches, but this arrangement was not very satisfactory. In 
time these agents were discontinued, and tho work of promotion was carried on by 
the officers of the Boards or by their missionaries \7hen these v;ore free to go 
among the churches. V/hen I came to the Foreign Board in 1891 I think that this was 
tho situation in the Church, I know that our Board had no field agent, although a 
generation earlier it had a number. It was a few years after I came that, under 
pressure from the Sjrnod of Illinois and with the provision of some special funds 
from Illinois and Missouri, Dr. Thomas Marshall was employed as Field Socretarv. 

The most effective work of financial promotion vjas done in those days by the Sunday 
School missionaries, like Mr. Sulzer of the Board of Publication and Sabbath School 
Work, later combined v:ith the Board of Education and tho Board of Aid for Colleges, 
and by that stalwart raoo of real Presbyterian bishops, tho S;modical superinten¬ 
dents of the Board of Home Missions, such men as General Adams, Uncle Tommy 
Kirkv/ood and others. 

At this time, namely, in the early nineties, there were 8 Boards, with 
a somewhat quasi independence of the "Sustentation Fund," which was not incorpor¬ 
ated and for which tho Board of Home Missions acted as Treasurer, There had begun 
to be at this time renewed Interest in tho subject of Stewardship, and attention 
was called to Chapter VI in the "Directory for Worship," in which the first, third 
and fourth paragraphs are as follov:si 

Urn Roger H, Williams 

- 2 - 

November 24, 1936 

In order that every member of the congregation may be trained 
to give of his substance systematically, and as the Lord has prospered 
hirii to promote the preaching of the gospel in all the world and to 
every creature, according to the command of the Lord Jesus Christ, it 
is proper and very desirable that an opportunity be given for offer¬ 
ings by the congregations in this behalf every Lord’s Day, and that, 
in accordance with the Scriptures, the bringing of such offerings be 
performed as a solemn act of worship to almighty God* 

**The offerings received may be apportioned among the Boards of 
the Church and among other benevolent and Christian objects, under the 
supervision of the ohuroh session, in such proportion and on such 
general plan as may from time to time be determined; but the specific 
designation by the giver of any offering to any cause ot causes shall 
always be respected and the will of the donor carefully carried out* 

”The offerings of the Sabbath school and of the various societies 
or agencies of the church shall be reported regularly to the session of 
the ohuroh for approval, and no offerings or collections shall be made 
by them for objects other than those connected v;ith the Presbyterian 
Church in the U, S, A,, without the approval of the session,” 

Very few churches were giving heed to the subject of systematic offerings, however, 
and the General Assembly recognized the real situation and gave its approval to 
the general plan of assigning each Board of thd Church a particular month for its 
offerings. For many years the following statement was printed on one of the cover 
pages of the General Assembly Minutes: 


^’For Churches that have not yet adopted the scheme of weekly offerings 
set forth in the Directory for Worship, Chap, VI, it is recommended 
that the first Lord’s Days of the following months be set apart for oon- 

tributions to the Boardsi 


Send Colleotlon 


"1, Foreign Missions/ 


Wm, Dulles, Jr,, 


Z, Aid for Colleges/ 


C, M, Charnley, 

3i Sustentation/ 


0. D. Eaton, 


4; S. School Work/ 


Chasv T. t'oliullin 



5. Church F,rootion, 


Adam Campbell, 


6. Ministerial Relief/ 


W. W. Heberton, 


7, Education, 


Jacob Wilson, 


8, Freedfflen, 


J. J, Beacon, 


Hone Missions, 

Whenever deemed 

0. D. Eaton, 


I remember a very interesting conference of the officers of all the 
Boards, held in the early nineties in the old Mission House at 53 Fifth Avenue, at 
which this general arrangement was approved and an agreement reached as to hc5w any 
contributions sent to any of the Boards, undesignated for any Board but intended 
for the benevolences as a whole, should bo distributed. Almost all the contribu¬ 
tions of the churches were sent directly to the Boards for v/hich they were inbended 
And there was no attempt to have the individual church or the churches as a whole 
make thoir contributions to a general benevolence fund, which v/as then to be 
apportioned among the Boards*. There were a fev/ churches, however, chiefly very 
small ones, which made one common offering, and usually this was sent to the Board 

Mr. Roger H, Williams 


November 24, 1936 

of National Missions for distribution. It went to that Board because for some 
time there was a rule, I believe, that every ohuroh that received aid from the 
Nntioml Board mst make an offering to each Board of the Church. These small 
mdesigmted gifts, it was agreed by all the Boards, should be distributed on 
the following ratio: 

*’Foreign Kissions 
Home Missions 31 

6 Other Boards each 6 

Church Erection 

Sabbath School Work 




Aid for Colleges” 

Vcwian Banks of the Board of National Missions* who had to do with this dis¬ 
tribution* has looked the matter up and confirms my recollection; 

When the old Executive Commission which preceded the General Council was 
established* it had often before it the question of some coordination of all the 
appeals of the Boards and some cohsolidation of the benevolences of the Church, 

It was proposed that there should be a common treasury into which all benevolence 
funds would be paid and from which the Executive Commission would make distribution 
to the Boards in accordance with its judgment. This matter was thoroughly con¬ 
sidered* and I have many of the documents v/hioh wore before the Executive (Com¬ 
mission at the time. The proposal was definitely and wisely rejected, but in 
larger or smaller measure the idea has presented itself again and again since* 

The Executive Commission also considered the question of proposing a 
percentage basis for the distribution of benevolences, and with the approval of 
the Boards recommended to the General Assembly in Chicago in 1914 the following 
action which the General Assembly adopted: 

”In reference to percentages, the Executive Commission recommends, 
first'# that the General Assembly approve the action of the joint con¬ 
ferences of the Executive Commission and Boards, which is as follows* 

^Resolved, 1, It is the opinion of the joint conference of the 
Executive Commission and Boards of the Church that no percentage basis 
be named for the distribution of offerings to the several Boards and 
permanent agencies* This action is taken with a view to stimulate 
Individual and congregational initiative and intelligence in giving; 
and, furthermore, the Boards; the joint Executive Committee and others 
are instructed to urge Synodical and Presbyterial committees, pastors 
and Sessions, congregations and individuals to specify the causes to 
which they wish their gifts and offerings applied, 

"Resolved, 2’. In the matter of undivided gifts that are sent to 
the treasurers of the different Boards, that the treasurers be in¬ 
structed to apportion the said undivided gifts according to a percentage 
to be agreed upon by the conference of the Executive Commission with 
the representatives of the Boards, and that the General Assembly be 
requested to authorise the said conference to determine the percentage 
of undivided offerings to go to each Board,” 

Mr, Roger H, Willitims 


November 24, 1936 

hv Dr r® reported to the Church in July. 1914, in a letter signed 

action,*he^snid-^^*’"'”^^^ Moderator, in which, after quoting the Assembly's 

"’Seeing that undesignated giving is liable to be unintelligent 
g V ng an unin elligent giving in the last analysis beccmes ungenerous 
giving, the Assembly's action calls for intelligence and individual 
judgment. It aims at raising up a higher tj/pe of givers within the 
Ctooh, who will not be content to delegate their responsibility to 
others, not even to the session, but will seek to know the facts and 
in the light of these, will think and act for themselves, 

. suggesting a ratio for the guidance of their members in 
divid^g their gifts, some sessions ascertain through a committee what 
the gifts of the congregation for the several causes during a series of 
years have averaged and out of this evolve a percentage. Others follow 
the ratio indicated by the gifts of the Church at large for the preced¬ 
ing year or a series of years* 

It is recognized that sessions may need to take into account 
special temporary claims, such as funds for the endowment of Synodical 
or Presbyterial Educational Institutions, the attainment of Synodical 
Homo Missions Self-support, local temperance campaigns, etc* 

**It is possible that mistakes may be made# Some may give more 
than is equitable to certain causes and less to others, but in the long 
run, this will be counter-balanced, A more intelligent and hence a 
more generous constituency will in time be developed. Thus all the 
Boards will be better supported and the whole work put on a broader and 
more stable basis. 

'^Certainly the first and most sacred obligation of all Presbyterians 
is to fully provide for the work which our Church has undertaken. Other 
claims may be ever so urgent, but this should come first and be fully 
met. There are ample resources within the Church to provide for its 
whole work,” 

I do not think that there has ever been any explicit General Assembly 
action reconsidering this action of 1914. We have come to our present situation 
rather by a process of drift, which has resulted in an unjustifiable and in¬ 
equitable use of budget ratios. When the Executive Commission gave place to the 
General Council and the Boards were reorganized and consolidated by the General 
Assembly of 1923, the question arose again over the centralization of the 
benevolences in a common treasury, Some had in mind, perhaps, only a matter of 
united accounting, but others wore thinking of oantralized distribution and 
control. The discussion of these matters by the General Council and the Boards 
is a long and instructive story# It issued in the appointment by the General 
Assembly of 1922 of a Committee on unifying the finances of the Church# This Com¬ 
mittee studied the matter for four years and made several reports to the General 
Assembly, the General Assembly adopting the last of these, and the Committee v/as 
discharged in 1926. This action of the Assembly authorized the appointment of a 
Secretary of Finance of the General Council and specified his duties. It dealt 
also with the question of the benevolence budget and with the subject of special 
or designated gifts. 

In specifying the duties of the Secretary of Finance the Assembly stated 
first of all that he was *’to make a careful study of the accounting and auditing 

Mr, Roger H, Williams 


November 24, 1936 

systems now in use in our Boards, Synods, Presbyteries and local congregations 
and prepare for introduction, in so far as it may be found possible and advisable, 
a unified system of accounting and auditing for their different treasurers," 

There were a number of other provisions which have been carried out so far as the 
Boards are concerned, but the duties of the Secretary of Finance with regard to 
Synods, Presbjrberies and local congregations v/ould seem never to have been ful¬ 

With reference to the budget, the Committee recommended and the General 
Assembly adopted the following general principles by which the Boards and the 
Genero.! Council should bo guidodj 

"In making up the benevolence budget uniform and prior con¬ 
sideration shall be given to the contractual and necessary obliga¬ 
tions of the Boards and agencies) but at tha same time, Boards and 
agencies are cautioned that provision for expansion of the work of 
one agency shall not directly or indirectly, be at the cost of the 
curtailment of the present work of another agency, 

"The first responsibility of the Church at large and of each 
Synod, Presbytery and congregation is to raise the entire benevolence 
budget and to provide each Board and agency with the entire amount 
allowed it therein." 

These instructions would seem to be perfectly clear. The contractual 
and necessary obligations of the Boards are explicitly indicated in their actual 
appropriations. These appropriations are made in advance. They represent the 
expenditures which are to be met, the Board assuming responsibility for meeting 
then, The main items in these appropriations are the salaries of missionary 
workers, men and women who are giving their lives to the work, and whose support 
the Boards have pledged in the faith that the Church will provide the funds, 
failing which the Boards must borrow money. The actual expenditures of the 
Boards for the year 1934-35 for which they were dependent upon the contributions 
from living sources were as follows; (Omitting Women's Boards) 

National Missions 
Foreign Missions 


254,384 (Or, more accurately, 

The benevolence budget for the Boards for 1934-35, eliminating the 
small amounts for the American Bible Society and the Federal Council, was as 

Board of National Missions $2,380,000 
Board of Foreign Missions 1,848,000 
Board of Christian Education 1,036,000 
Board of Pensions 280,000 

It is obvious that this budget is not proportional to the "contractual 
and necessary obligations of the Boards," If the budget had actually been 
provided, the following v;ould have been the result: the Board of National Missions 
would have received over actual expenditures $965,890; the Board of Foreign 
Missions $602,681; the Board of Christian Education $635,897; the Board of 
Pensions $25,616, In other words, the Board of Christian Education would have 
received 260 per cent, of its actual expenditures, the Board of National Missions 
170 per cent, of its actual expenditures and the Board of Foreign Missions 150 
per cent, Undoubtedly each one of these Boards could use wisely and effectively 

Mr. Roger H. Williams 

- 6 - 

Hovombor 24, 1936 

all that is asked for it. But certainly such a budget of asking does not rest on 
any adequate oomparativo measurement of the needs of these different causes. 

XU Sreat harm is done, however, by this obvious inequality unless and 
until the ratios resulting from such askings are transferred from these askings to 
the actual present giving of the Church, It is at this point that the difficulties 
have arisen and euoh manifest injustice has been done. The application of the 
budget ratios of 1934-35 to the actual giving of the Church would result, as 
indicated, in the following table: 


Expenditures If Divided by Budp,et Ratios 

National Missions 
Foreign Missions 













As will be seen, the actual expenditures conform pretty closely to the 
actual receipts. But if these receipts are divided by the ratios, money which the 
National Board needs toward meeting actual expenditures and money which the Board 
of Foreign Missions needs for the same purpose, and which these Boards are now 
receiving, would be transferred to the Board of Christian Education, giving it 
$195,327 in excess of its actual expenditures of funds frwi living sources, which 
are the only funds included in the budget. It seems to us that a method of dealing 
with the benevolence budget and its ratios must be devised which will obviate 
this manifest injustice and frustration of the present purpose of donors. 

The question is as to how this can be done. It seems to me that the 
right method is to construct the budget in accordance with the principles enunciated 
by the General Assembly of 1926, Let the basic consideration be the actual 
expenditures and receipts of the various Boards for the preceding year, increasing 
the amount for each Board proportionately so as to reach the total amount for which 
the churches are to be asked. If the amounts to be asked for the different Boards 
in excess of what this basic principle allows are to be disproportionate, this 
disproportion should be determined by an adequate consideration of the detailed 
purposes to which each Board would apply its increased receipts if they could be 
obtained. Each church (and each individual) should be urged to give intelligently 
and conscientiously and should be free to distribute its gifts in accordance with 
its own conscience and judgment. Those churches which wish a ratio to be suggested 
should make use of the ratio resulting from the budget as constituted, in accordance 
T^ith the suggestion just made. 

Some of the discussion at the meeting in Chicago illustrates very clearly 
the erroneous way in which we have come to think of the budget. It was urged that 
the ratios should be changed because the Board of Christian Education needs the 
additional money for the support of the new department which the General Assembly 
ims charged it to establish. But the budget amply covered this need without any 
alteration of the ratios. As already indicated, the budget is asking for the Board 
of Christian Education the sum of $597,473 in excess of what it has been receiving. 
This amount covers the cost of the new department many times over* If the Church is 
not willing to give the amount under this request, surely it is wrong to use the 
ratios so as to provide it for the Board of Christian Education by taking it away 
from the contributions which the Boards of National and Foreign Missions are now 
receiving and which they must continue to receive to avoid deficiency. The General 
Assembly of 1926 explicitly stated that the "expansion of the work of one agency 
shall not directly or indirectly be at the cost of the curtailment of the present 
work of another agency," It should be added that when tho Board of National Mia** 

Jlr, Roger H, Williams 


November 24, 1936 

sions took over the Foreign Board's work for the Indians and for Orientals in 
America and when the Board of Foreign Missions took over the work in Europe from 
the special Committee on Europe, no speoial consideration was given to those 

It is clear from the discussion at the General Council and from Dr. 
Mudge’s letter of November 13 to you, of which he kindly sent me a copy, that 
some minds are confused over the matter of speoial or designated gifts. This 
subject was thoroughly considered also by the Committee on Unified Finance which 
conferred with a Committee of the four Boards. The Committee of Unified Finance 
reported to the General Assembly on this subject also* and the Assembly of 1926 
took the following action: 

’^our Committee has given much consideration to the subject of 
‘Designated Gifts** At our request, representatives of our four Boards 
held a joint conference on the subject and reached unanimous agreement 
on the following# which we recommend for adoption by the General Assembly, 

”1, A ‘designated object* is a specific project or cause for the 
support of which a donor indicates that a particular gift is to be used, 

^'(l) (a) Within the appropriations of the Board receiving it. 

(b) Outside the appropriations, but v/ithin the benevolence 

(o) Entirely outside of the benevolence budget, 

”(2) (a) A local project supported in whole or in part by the donor, 
(b) General work within a stated area, ns a Synod or Presby¬ 
tery, the designated amount being applicable to the total 
expenditure within that area, 

(o) The general work of the indicated Board or agency without 
further designation and applicable to the total of its 
expenditure in such a way as it desires, 

**(3) A designation may be made byt 

(a) An individual. 

(b) A Church Session, 

(c) An organization or group within a church, 

(d) A Presbj'tery or Presbyterial Society, 

(e) A Synod or Synodical Society, 

(f) A national organization, as e, g,, the Westminster Guild, 

‘‘Confusion may be avoided by indicating clearly the object for which 
a designation is made and noting it as an ‘Appropriation Item,* a 'Budget 
Item outside the Appropriation,* or an 'Item outside the Appropriations,' 
or an 'Item outside the Benevolence Budget. 

"Designations for any cause included in the benevolence budget should 
be encouraged as a legitimate educational practice. 

"But under no ciroumstanoes should such special designations be 
allowed to withdraw support from other Boards and every effort should be 
made to use them as a ground of necessary increase in the support of the 
other Boards* 

Mr. Roger H, Williuns -8- November 24, 1936 

"When 0 . Church or Presbytery or Synod has raised its full quota 
roi* any oause^ there should be no limitation of its rights to give any 
additional amount to any cause as it desires* 

Designations for objects not included v/ithin the benevolence 
budget should not be solicited until the Church at largo dischargee its 
duty to the entire benevolence budget.* 

The General Council is directed through its Budget and Finance 
Comnittee to work out in the light of these principles a plan for 
equitably meeting the needs of all the Boards^ as authorized by the 
General Council and which will insure also the application of every 
contribution to the object for which it was intended by the giver, and 
report the sane to the next Assembly. 

The proposal to do away with specific or designated objects is both 
iri^ossiblo and unwiso# It is impossible because Synods* Presbyteries* churches 
and individuals will not comply with it. To forbid specific or designated gifts 
withih the benevolence budget v;ill simply result in the transfer by donors of 
their gifts to othor agencies* Furthemoro*. it is our wise use of specific 
and designated giving that the benevolences of the Church have been lifted to 
their present lovel and sustained so well in comparison with the benevolences of 
other denominations* Sono of those have tried tho method of abolishing such 
gifts^ with tho result that they have lost hundreds of thousands if not milllone 
of dollars* In our own Church it was the undertaking of the support of individual 
foreign and homo missionaries that lod to tho groat inoroaso of giving sane years 
ago. This inoroaso was not at the expense of gifts to other causos* It resulted 
in an increase of giving to every cause. The following statement embodies tho 
truth that could be indefinitely illustrateds 


"About tv/enty-five years ago a young pastor took charge of a church 
of o.bout two hundred menbors of v/ell-to^^o people* which had been in the 
habit for several years of contributing $125 a year to Foreign Missions 
and $75 to Assembly Home Ilissions, As soon as ho had become fairly well 
acquainted 7/ith his congregation the pastor began to agitate tho question 
of the churches undertaking the support of a missionary, 

"The official board of the church did not take kindly to the 
suggestion at first. They argued that things ought to be done in due 
proportion*, and that such an extraordinary undertaking in Foreign Missions 
Would oertainljf result in injury to the other church causes, 

"To this the pastor replied that he had a theory on the subject 
which he was anxious to test* which was that the matter would work just 
the other \myj that he was willing to admit that he might be vw*ong in 
holding this theory* but that he would like to have the privilege of 
making an experiment with it© He therefore proposed that if his official 
board T;ould oo-operate v/ith him in making an ‘Every Member Canvass' to 
raise the salary of a missionary*, and that if as the result of that effort 
the congregation gave less that year than they had been giving to Assembly 
Home Missions he would pledge himself to make good any such deficit out 
of his own salary. On this understanding, the officers consented that 
the experiment be made* 

Mr. Rocer H. Williams - 9 _ November 24, 1936 

'^en the Every Member Canvass v/as taken it was found that nineteen- 
twentieths of the membership had responded by signing pledges; that the 
largest single pledge made was $2 a month, and that the total amount sub¬ 
scribed was considerably over ^J600. The chief emphasis in the pastor’s 
efforts throughout the year was in enlisting the interest and help of the 
people in Foreign Missions, The regular collections for the other causes 
were taken up on the appointed days and the people v/ere given appropriate 
infoxnation In regard to them, but no special effort was made in behalf 
of any cause# 

*^en the report to Presbytery was read out at the close of the 
year it was found that the congregation Imd contributed more than the 
amount pledged for Foreign Missions (v/hioh v/rs due to the fact that some 
good conservative members who had not thought best to sign pledges made 
their usual contributions when the regular collection ms taken) and that 
instead of giving $75 to Assemblj^ Home Missions, as usual, the church 
had actually (without knowing it) contributed $275 to that cause# 

^*In the year 1908, as the result of a special effort to introduce the 
forward movement into the churches of East Hanover Presbytery, there was 
an increase of about $1,500 in the contributions of the Presbytery to 
Foreign Missions# The same year, without any special effort having been 
made for Home Missions, that cause received an increase of over $3,000. 

In a letter from the Presbytorial Chairman of Home Missions giving these 
facts, the following statement is made: 

”*It is, therefore, evident that if the increased offerings to Foreign 
Missions in our Presbytery have had any effect on the Home Mission offer¬ 
ings, they have acted as a stimulus rather than otherwise* The churches 
of the Presbytery are taking a deeper interest than ever in the Home 
Mission work, the contributions to v/hioh are increasing with gratifying 

’'Illustrations like the above of the principle stated in the caption 
of this article could be multiplied indefinitely.” 

The old Forward Movement Committee, of which lb** John H* Converse was the 
Chairman, supported by men like Alfred E, ^larling, E* A, K. Haokett, John Wanomaker 
and others, was a voluntary committee of laymen in the Church which employed for 
some years secretaries such as David MoConaughy and L# D» Wishard for the sole 
purpose of securing the support of individual missionaries and the contribution of 
large specific gifts# Their work injured no cause# On the contrary it helped 
every benevolence of the Church# 

All the work of the women’s homo and foreign missionary organisations 
had been developed on the basis of specific ob^jeot giving# And the General 
Assembly of 1923 on the reoommondation of the Executive Commission declared "that 
our churches are advised that it is not the purpose of tho cooperative bonevolonee 
budget of the General Assembly, or of tho particular churches, to deprive them 
of the privile ge of supporting app-oved denominational causes, to which they as 
individuals, societies, or churches, maj^ regard themselves as committed. 

Any abondonment of specific and desigi^ted objects will result in the 
tragic diminution of gifts to all the Boards and in the opening of our churches to 
the appeals of all the independent and outside agencies which are beyond the 
control of the General Council# 


Mr, Roger H, Williams 


November 24, 1936 

We should learn from the experience of a number of our sister 
onominations which have tried the plan of united benevolences distributed by the 
r 0 and eliminating specific and designated giving. You may be interested in 

the ratio of gifts to Foreign Missions in some of these denominational benevolence 
t unas: 

Methodist Board of Foreign Missions 
American Board (Cong.) 

Baptist Board of Foreign Missions 
United Presbyterian Board of 
Foreign Missions 



34 (Includes Women’s Bd.) 

The experience of our Methodist friends has been especially unhappy, 

SO unhappy that the old Board of Bishops in one of its reoent pronounoements to the 
Church expressed its discontent# And their situation is described in the followinr 
quotation from an article in one of the Methodist papers: 

"On May 8, 1936 there met in Evanston at the First Church a group 
that had been assembled in response to a demand from an aroused General 
Conference# From various committees of the General Conference had come 
requests# passed on to the World Service commission in each case, ask¬ 
ing for a readjustment of the ratio of distribution of World Service 
funds, and, of course, the requests were alv/ays for an adjustment up¬ 
wards* On a falling income that was the only way to get an increase, 
and each group needed the increase so badly that the tendency was to 
forget that such increase must come from another group, which might bo 
crippled thereby* It was not a very Christian way of looking at things; 
but then, in fighting for one's life, whether it be in a comnitteo (as 
in Finance Committee, and in committees of the various Benevolent Boards) 
or in the General conference committees, it seems easy to forgot Chris¬ 
tian principles-* As Dr, Johnson of China put it, in words too caustic to 
be effective, ^Embezzlement is not excusable even when the misappropriated 
funds are passed from one of God’s departmental treasuries to another,’ 

And yet this is the kind of distressing dynamite which the World Service 
Commission has had to handle during the past 8 or 12 years. 

"General Conference ordered that all requests for an increased ratio 
be referred 'without instructions’ to the World S rvice Commission for 
study and action* The meeting in Evanston was for the purpose of dealing 
with this ratio question, 

"But of course there is a better way. Quarrelling over the details 
of distribution has not brought any increase to the treasury* Perhaps 
this may even explain why the church gave less year by year*" 

One of our Baptist friends writes in the religious press of October 10, 


"Protests against the arbitrary manipulation of designated gifts 
of individuals and of churches and partial prohibition, at least, of 
specific gifts. The method used by officialdom is as follows: When a 
society is brought by designation to eighty-five per cent of its budget, 
it receives no further share in the United Budget until all the other 
societies are up to the same level. This of course obliges givers to 
foreign missions to part with some of their gift to the educational board 
which is notoriously Modernist. Dr. Baldwin believes that ’enough 
denominational money has been driven into other than Baptist missions by 

Mr. Boger H. Vfillinms 

- 11 - 

Norember 24, 1936 

these oporations to maintain the work in its former flourishinr state ' 

late at"trLr?t'r^; no^^nc: foe* 

inte to attract it back, whether a great body of Baptists have nnt h,. 

come permanently alienated from their old relationship,^ 

Church, wflnf“^^er 
TournreLIT^- v!f F satisfactory. The root 

of them^ I do nnt'^h^ii J ^ o“r ratios and the use that has been made 

of thrBoa^df o? Lfi r effectiveness of the promotional work 

Cbrlstifr nL ^ Missions. I believe that the cause of 

tho.t is iusf af effectl^*/°+^"F? effectively presenting it has an appeal 

cnav is oust as effective in the Church as any other. It has, moreover, the 

enormous advantage of the local appeal of each Presbyterian CoUeger ^L agents 

an to ou^ henevol"'” abroad collecting funds which do not appear at 

BoLf hZ I do not think that the prcmetional work of one 

!ausL Ttb- ^a*'®" away from other 

1 “f Council took eitactly the right action when at its 

last meeting it adopted unanimously the following reeolutioni 

That our churches are advised that it is not the purpose of the 
cooperative benevolence budget of the General Assembly, or of the 
particular churches, to deprive them of the privilege of supporting 
approved denominational causes, to which they ns individuals, societies, 
or churches, may regard themselves as committed." 

If we will work together on this basis we shall see the contributions 
of the Church for all its Boards advanced from year to year and each Board enabled 
to do, with increasing efficiency, the work committed to it by the Church, 

For thirty years there have been those among us who have thought of 
our benevolenoe system too much in terms of control and restraint and not enough 
in terms of life and freedom and spiritual power. This view of the functions of 
the Executive Commission and the General Council in relation to the Boards has 
prevailed during these years save for the period of the New Era Movement. It is 
this that has been our trouble, far more than any alleged rivalry or competition 
of the Boards, until this misuse of the ratios, which is quite recent, arose. If 
we can get rid of this misuse and of our suspicions and limitations we can begin a 
new day. We have begun a new day in our united promotion since and to the extent 
that the General Council has left it practically in the hands of the Boards 
themselves. The Boards are working in greater unity and cooperation than ever 
before in the history of the Church, What we need now is simply equity and justice 
in the budget, an end of repression, a spirit of unhindered freedom and trust and 
a reliance upon true and living motives. Then we shall go forward to greater 
things than we have ever knovm. 

With kind regard - 

Very cordially yours. 


Robert E. Speer. 

Mr, Roger H, Williams 

- 12 - 

Hovenber 24, 1936 

Perhaps it will be v/ell now that the whole matter is under consideration 
to refer in a postscript to some other aspects of tho inequity of the present 
benevolence budget and the present use of its ratios and also of the inequity of 
tho method of providing the promotional budget of tho General Council, 

1, Please note the following table which omits for convenience the 
small amounts of the American Bible Society and the Federal Council: 

Ratios of benevolence 

Ratios of actual 

Ratios of actual 

National Missions 



Foreign Missions 









44 ^ 



The case of Foreign Missions is the only one to which is given in the 
benevolence budget a ratio smaller than its ratio of receipts and its ratio of 
expenditures. What justification can there be in this inequity? 

2, Note again that to assign a Board a ratio in the benevolence budget 
less than its actual ratios of receipts and then to seek to apply the budget ratios 
to tho actual receipts is to seek to take money from one Board required to meet its 
obligations and to give it to another Board, which is explicitly forbidden by the 
General Assembly action of 1926, 

3, Note further the following table showing the ratio of its budget 
askings which each Board must receive in order to meet its expenditures: 

national Missions 
Foreign Missions 

595!, (Or deducting the S,S. Synods, etc. 46J?) 

1 % 

42 ^ 

87 ^ 

What justifies this discrimination? In other words, Foreign Missions 
must receive four-fifths of what is asked in order to meet its actual obligations, 
while education can meet its actual obligations with two-fifths of its asking, and 
in face of this fact the ratios are used to increase the amount given to education, 
although on the face of the figures the Foreign Board's ratio of necessity is 
twice that of the Board of Education, 

4, Special object or designated gifts have nothing to do with the 
matter. All these are in the budget amounts and are included in the ratios. 

The amounts allowed to National Missions and to Foreign Missions and their ratios 
are not increased one penny by special or designated gifts. These designations are 
within the regular budget work of the Boards* This is not the case of the amounts 
which Christian colleges raise for themselves and which Presbyteries often raise 
for objects outside the budget. 

I judge that the difficulties that have arisen in the minds of some in 
the matter of specific objects have been due to the situation in some local churoho 
where the church had undertaken the support of a missionary either home or foreign 
and felt that this was such a primary obligation that when benovolenoos fell off 
the decrease was imposed on other objects or causes in order that the missionary 

Mr. Roger H. Williams 


Novembor 24, 1936 

r SsF F‘f 

Boardlfi urg^^ ^ decreased gifts, or without any gifts, to the other 

0 -bsolutely necessary, they should be made 
nhnv V, A pledges and contributions of the 

^n « disproportionate reduction should be made in the con¬ 

tributions for any one cause, 

"If individuals particularly interested in Foreign Missions are 
prepared to make up the balance of the local church's pledges to the 
Foreign Board, in addition to their regular gifts to the church's 
benevolences, such contributions should be welcome, and this same 
principle would apply, of course, to gifts (to meet pledgee) to the other 
Boards within the Benevolence Budget," 

When these special obligations were taken on by churches it was not at the expense 
of other causes but was done as an extra and, as a rule, with the result of in¬ 
creasing the gifts to all other causes. It would not be fair, if there must be 
reductions, to impose these reductions, as I have said, exclusively either on the 
missionary salary or on the other causes* The reduction should be equitably 
proportionate if it is necessary at all, 

5* In spite of the fact that Foreign Missions are assigned only 33 per 
cent, in the budget, they are charged 46 per cent, of the share of the four Boards 
in the expenses of the General Council* The self-supporting Synods are included in 
National Missions for the purpose of the ratio of asking but are not included in 
the assessment of expenditures for the General Council, Surely if they are in¬ 
cluded in one place they should be included in the other. 

6. Furthermore, at present the budget ratios are being used by some 
employees of the General Council to transfer contributions for Foreign Missions to 
Education and in some SjTiods and Presbyteries to National Missions, The agents of 
the General Council and some of the field executives are working strenuously to 
this ond. One-quarter or more of the salary of these men is paid by the Board of 
Foreign Missions. In other words^ the Board of Foreign Missions is being compelled 
to use the money given for Foreign Missions to support agents and agencies which 
are seeking to divert money from Foreign Missions, This surely is ethically in¬ 

Many local receiving agencies carry the matter even further and by ono 
method or another divert the benevolence contributions into local interests. As 
Dr. Bible of our Board writesi 

’’At the present time the local receiving agencies actually carry on 
a determined propaganda which at times amounts to a very real pressure, 
lloreover, when such local receiving ageno 3 '’ set up it immediately opens 
the door for a form of action by the eoclesiastioal body connected with 
this agency which presents a most serious difficulty for all the Boards* 

I refer to the practice now so common of adding local items to the budget 
as it comes dovm from the General Assembly# Sj/nod, etc. There is hardly 
an ecclesiastical body which has a local receiving agency which does not 

Mr. Roger H. Willians 


Hovember 24, 1936 

tL InLeLe ® = ® e’^tent, and these agenoies are greatlv on 

^fthractuaJ hen ^"Stances dees the policy taken add anything 

beneyolenoe giving in the eoolesiastioal area concerned-, 
instances it neans the sun total of benevolence noney which 

Ass^nb detemined b^tLt^Lal 

the local ^ divided beteeon those itens and a number of others added by 

deLlvefo?®tr^'' Prnotical purposes being 

deprived of the nnount which goes to these local agencies." 

Ilnli-orf P interest to add comuni oat ions from the Methodist and 

budvet haro^rnrd in which a pooled benevolence 

of^PoLl^ n X in those churches. Dr. Diffendorfer of the Methodist Board 
01 foreign Missions writes! 

I doubt if you could find anyone who would say that tho budget 
plan is satisfactory, Certainly fron the standpoint of this Board it is 
not satisfactory. Any Board whose work is overseas and therefore away 
the innediate observation and study of the churoh constituency 
suffers in a budget arrangement. It is true that World Service includes 
the whole group. Homo Missions, Christian education, the Hospital Board, 
emperanoe Board, otc*, which all keep themselves before the churches at 
homo in addition to what representation they get in World Service. On 
the other hand, our Board has no such local connections and therefore its 
work is lost as a separate entity in the thinking of the church* It is 
the opinion of this office that this process is steadily going on and 
the omnibus plan is gradually eliminating the concept of the World Mission 
fron the minds and hearts of many of our people* 

The budget plan has not resulted in increased giving or any 
deepened missionary interest throughout the Churoh. At the present time 
the freedom of the Boards is certainly abridged, nor is there adequate 
attention given to the component parts of ViTorld Service* In our church 
gatherings. World Service seldom gets more tine than the representation 
of one children's hone# or one other institution located within the bounds 
of an Annual Conferenoe. Thus the influential place of the great 
benevolent interosts of the Church is being yielded gradually, 

certainly would advise any denomination that has still a measure 
of freedom to retain it. 

’’Sometinos it has been proposed that a way out would be to classify 
all of our bobevoient interests in two groups, certainly not more than 
three and thon have a representation of each one of then before all church 
gatherings and all congregations.-” 

Dr, Taylor of the Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presbyterian 
Church writes: 

”At the beginning of the Church year, our Church Mission budget 
is fixed, deteminod chiefly by the every member pledge to missions and 
the amounts given during tho preceding yoar by congregations which do 
not pledge,- Vfhen this budget is fixed, no Board is allowed to advertise 
or ask for anything not oontainod in that fixed budget, except it do so 
privately of individ-jals, 

"Our conviction is that only a call to advance v/ill get us out of 
tho depression in mission support in v/hich v/o soon to be. 

Mr, Sogor H, Williams 


Novenber 24, 1936 

I believe tbat, if our hands were untied and we v/ere eiven tbo 

ch™h muLf an^- S° church in literature. 

accenLffor^ pulpits saying, 'Here are lives qualified and 

out and 8UDDorr+r°v“^*!u additional funds to send 

t and support thon7', the church would quickly respond. 

''If—(a) the Board of Administration would fix the proeortionment 
l>®-volent Boards at a cL^^rpoirfo^ 
five or ten years, (b) allow each Board to go out and plead its cause 

to. desigmL °?d^ * basis of its merits, (of inform donors of the right 
to. designate, (d) assure donors and Boards that no Board during that 

I belLvrtw® deprived of undesignated funds because of designations- 
a healthy advance.™ " 

the five or ten years, a survey of the relative 
positions of the several Boards could be made. If adjustments in 
^"“designated funds then seemed justified, such 
justments could be planned, the Boards advised, and those to whom it 
meant serious change given a year to prepare to meet the adjustments. 

u ^ ®^id in a previous letter, our Board receives 40,5^ of the 

church budget gifts to missions which includes designations. This 
results in our receiving 37.495? of undosignated budget gifts. 

"The Board of American Missions receives 42^ including their 
designations. This results in their receiving 44,24^ of undesignated 

"In general 1 believe that the office staff and members of our 
Board agree with exprossod convictions*” 

that thfi Board of Foreign Missions is glad to loam 

£p™^^tteo on Budget and Finance of the General Council is ntxking a study 
system of determining the benevolence budget of the Church and of 
4 - ° 4 -*° presenting it to the Churoh and especially of the my in v/hioh the 

conceived and represented. The Board of Foreign Missions has long 
felt that tho present method of determining the budget is inadequate and that the 
use now made of tho budget ratios is inequitable and unjust. 

, , the determination of tho budget. Ho principles have ever been 

established for the equitable, comprehensive measurement of the needs and claims of 
the causes represented by the four Boards, It may well bo questioned whether any 
established or whether even the General Assembly has the 
right or power to announce prosorlptlve principles v/hioh might abridge the consti¬ 
tutional rights of the members of tho Church as defined in the Directory for Worship, 
Chapter 6, Seotion 3: ^ 

The offerings received may be apportioned among the Boards 
of the Churoh and among other benevolence and Christian 
objects, under the supervision of the Churoh session in 
such and on such general plan as may from time to time bo 
determined; but the specific designation by the giver of 
any offering to any cause or causes shall always be 
respected and the v/ili of the donor carefully carried out,” 

This recognition of the right of the individual donor to determine the direction and 
use of hie gift may not be abridged or denied, Hor may it be nullified by any plan 
of equalization which frustrates his intent to help a particular cause to tho full 
extent of his offering, and which overthrov/s his purpose by withdrav/ing from the 
selected cause, by v/ay of compensation to other causes, an amount proportionate to 
his special gift. This right of the individual, however, can be fully safeguarded 
and at tho same time the General Assembly be free to consider tho whole v/ork which 
it is carrying on and to declare the need and authorize tho requisition of each 
Board# Let us say onoo again, however, that there may not be under our law any 
direct or indirect abridgment of tho right or any frustration of tho purpose of tho 
individual donor in his giving to tho causes of the Churoh, This vreis clearly set 
forth in the action of the General Assembly of 1934, see Minutes, page 113, as 

”In emphasizing this responsibility of all church members and 
church officers under the Constitution, to engage actively in 
the spread of the Gospel through the officially designated 
Boards and Agencies of tho Churoh, the General Assembly would 
most emphatically stf/S-te that there is no arbitrary abridgment 
of personal liberty in the requirement of this duty of all v/ho 
have affiliated themselves vdth the Presbyterian Church. As 
tho judicatory of jurisdiction in all matters relating to 
missionary operations, it has never presumed to interfere v/ith 
the rights or proforenoos of individual members to give their 
money or efforts to suoh missionary objects as they nay choose, 

”0n tho contrary, it has always maintainod that the right to 
control tho property of tho members of tho Church, to assess 
tho amount of thoir contributions, or to prescribe hov/ they 
shall dispose of thoir money, is utterly foreign to the spirit 
of Presbyterianism, Every contribution on the part of an 
individual member of the Churoh must be purely voluntary. In 
fact, the Presbyterian Church itself is a voluntary association. 

- 2 - 


All of Its Biombors voluntarily assooiato themselves «ith the 
Churoh. and maintain thoir affiliation with it no longer than 
they voluntarily choose to do so. All that they do for its 
support, therefore, is a voluntary donation, and there is no 
power which oan compel them to contribute to any eoolesiastioal 
objoot to v/hich they aro not v/illing to give." 

four oausorLn^t^^r^^ Problem is to determine by whom and how the needs of the 
farL ^ “<5 compared. Clearly it cannot bo done by such a 

and orahSr"”® Assombly. Equally clearly it has never beL done 

the Budre^ e dT General Council. Whether it can be done by 

^ Finance Committee is an open question. It is certain that thus far 
even this competent and conscientious Committee has never attempted to do it. 

On what basis is it conceivable that a united budget could bo prepared? 

(1) On the basis of the actual receipts of each Board for the preceding 
year or the average receipts for the preceding five years; (2) on the basis of the 
each Board for the preceding year or the average expenditure 
for the preceding five years; (3) on the basis of the needs of each Board, 
determined on some just and equitable basis of comparison as has never bean done; 
on the basis of some combination of those three bases. 

It is interesting to compare the benevolence budget and ratios vfhioh the 
General Council recommended to the last General Assembly and is recommending to the 
coming Assembly v/ith the budget which would result from either (l) or (2) above. 

Budget of $8,000,000 1935-36 and 1936-37i 

Board of National Missions 
Board of Foreign Missions 
Board of Christian Education 
Board of Pensions 
American Bible Society 
Federal Council of Churches 

Amount assigned to the churches 
Woman’s National Missions $1,200,000 

Woman's Foreign Mdssions 1,200,000 















100 i 



Compare v;ith this the actual receipts of oaoh Board for the last full 
preceding year 1934—35, with the resultant ratio, including in these receipts only 
the living donor sources contemplated by the budget: 

National Missions, including the self-supporting Synods 




Foreign Missions 










We omit the small amounts for tho American Bible Society and the Federal Council. 

Compare further the budget of actual expenditures for tho year 1934-35, 
deducting tho women's contributions and deducting also tho expenditures covered by 
receipts from non-living sources, so as to shov; in the table the comparative neod 
of receipts from budget sources in order to meet actual expenditures: 



national Kissions 
Foreign Uissions 










100 % 

6)wS'!”‘£“r£L”°:£JaSirri."S'-."-;? , 
;! S'“°“ ¥1”“ Lih:*"”':; £ 


Kor, -.r 1 ■the wisoat and best course be to dotornino tho Eonoral 


permit eanh Committee any needs in excess of this budget, and to 

approve with the Consnittee might 

understanding that suoh contributions v/ould bo over and above tho 

anf (2)fthe budgirb“ed 0^(1^ 

2, There are grave objections against tho 
budget ratios. 

use nov; made of tho present 

or, tho Ro ratios are based on askings, not on receipts reasonably expected 

th actual giving, and not on actual financial obligations for 

be paid“for"°All already undertaken and which requires to 

aLun^nf^L* r ^ thft the ratios now truthfully represent is the proportionate 
distrib^rn in g hypothetical sum. If this sum were received and 

istributed proportionately tho ratio represents the share which each Board would 
receive but U) this total does not represent items equally weighed and measured, 
it is tho roughest sort of a compromise, VTith no determination of its component 
Items by any studied comparison. (2) To apply tho ratios of suoh non-attained 
askings to the amount actually given works tho gravost v/rong both to tho intent of 
donors and to certain of tho Boards, 

. , intent of donors is partly, but only partly, indicated in present 

giving as roprosontod in Table B, If tho ratios of tho budget of askings are 
applied to the amount actually givon by tho Church through living sources tho result 
Will bo to take $57|076 vihioh National Missions is nov; rocoiving and $145,369 from 
what Foreign Missions is now roooiving and to transfer $156,903 of those amounts to 
the Board of Eduoation and #3,254 to tho Board of Ponsions. This was not tho intent 
of tho donors* 

(2) Furthermore, tho actual expenditures of the Boards are shovm in Table 
B, The following table shows by vfay of comparison tho actual receipts of each Board 
in 1934-35, its actual expenditures and the amount which each Board would receive if 
the actual receipts v/ere divided by the ratio of tho budget of askings; 


Expenditures If Divided by Ratios 

National Missions 
Foreign Missions 













expendituroa ^f^Fore'S mraors1:odrf'r t^f 

purpose and which these Boards are now reoeivino woniri 

“ Di^5.33rir:xiero? us^:rr::endiL\\f r 

funds from living souroos, which are the only funds included in the Ldget/ 

°P°oi^y further some of the errors which are abroad in 
oonnGotion v/ith the budget and the budget ratiosi 

(a) A card was issued last year by the Committee on United Promotion 
mking the erroneous statement, "The benevolence budget of our 
Church for the year ending March 31 is gauged by the expenditures 
01 pro ceding yoars*'^ 

(b) An advertisement appeared in "The Presbyterian" of February 37 , 

1929, as follov/s, ”Aftor careful study and duo consideration of all 
the ;vork and all the needs and all the calls of all the Board General 
Council recommends that 16.55 per cent, of all the benevolence 
budgets of all the churches be given for the work of Christian Educa¬ 
tion. This is erroneous. There was no such study and consideration 

of all the work and all the noods and all the calls of all the Boards'* 
and the General Council did not make this recommendation* 

(o) In the Presbyterian Banner of Deo. 26, 1935, in the section of the 
Board of Education appeared the following statement: 

General Assembly has supreme authority over all the 
agencies of the Church* They operate under its instruc¬ 
tions. The Boards plan their work subject to its approval, 
and General Assembly determines hcrw much money is requisite 
to carry out the plan it has approved and the instructions 
it has given. Estimatos are made of the proportions of the Board 
total benevolences from the churches that should bo allotted to each^ 
so that the vital parts of our general work shall be 
equitably supported. Those proportions are roprosentod by 
the percentages which each church is urged to give each 

General Assembly recommends that 18,5 per cent of the 
total contributions to Board causes from the churches be 
given to carry on the work committed to the Board of 
Christian Education by General Assembly. The attention 
of pastors and church benevolence treasurers is particular¬ 
ly directed to this faob. In this period of reduced total 
benevolences it is especially important that this poroontage 
shall bo received. This v/ill be no more than enough to meet 
the Board*s greatly reduced budget. 

This peroontago applies to the total bonovolonoes given 
by the congregation to all Assembly's budget causes (not in¬ 
cluding women's budget.) If the church v/ishos to designate 
offerings for the support of particular objects, the amounts 
for those objects should be included in the total amount con¬ 
stituting the Board's percentage* That is# those designated 
amounts should not be first paid eind the percentages after- 
vfards applied only to the remainder. 

If remittances are made to the Central Receiving Agency, 

156 Fifth Avenue, New York# vd-th directions with oaoh remit¬ 
tance that it is to bo distributed according to General 


Assonbly poroontages, tho Board of Christian Eduoation 
will roooive its 18^5 per cont. If money is sent diroot 
to Board treasurers tho ohuroh troasuror can follov; tho 
division aocording to poroontagos in making his roraittanoos. 

Tho womonSs missionary budget is apart from tho oongroga- 
tional budget and tho porcantagos do not apply to it* 

(d) A statonont prepared in Dooenbor, 1934, to bo sent to tho bonovolenoo 

treasurers of all the churches but fortunately, still held by the Budget 
and Finanoe Committee, declared '^that the GeHQral Assembly determines 
on the basis of oatimatos carefully prepared and first submitted to tho 
General Council for examination hov/ much money is requisite to carry out 
the plans it has sanctioned and the instructions it has given. Careful 
estimates are made of the proportion of tho total benevolences of the 
Church which should be allotted to each Board. These proportions are 
represented by the porcontages which each ohuroh is urged to give to 
each cause. This proposed statement further declared, ^Contributions 
designated to bo applied to a particular Board^s appropriations for 
special ob^jeots should be included in and should not oxoood tho 
percentage allotted to tho Board v/ithin v/hoso budget tho object is 
included.” This means that no ohuroh should give anything for any 
specific object, for any school or college or individual missionary 
or missionary enterprise at home or abroad without contributing a 
proportionate amount to each other Board of the Church. This same 
document further states, ’^Hany churches have undertaken the support 
of 'Special Objects' quite apart from those v/hioh are supported 
through tho Women's Missionary Society of the church. Those 'Special 
Objects* are associated v;ith tho v/ork of one or more of tho Boards of 
the Church and are supported either by tho specially designated gifts 
of members of the congregation or out of tho bonovolenoo offerings of 
the church. If they are supported out of tho benevolence offerings 
of tho church, groat care should bo taken that tho amount appropriated 
from tho bonovolenoo funds of tho church and sent to one or more of 
the Boards for these 'Special Objects' should not exceed in total 
amount the respective percentage or percentages approved by tho 
General Assembly for tho Board or Boards with the work of v/hioh tho 
'Special Object’ or 'Special Objects' is or are associated. 

"Furthermore, tho Central Receiving Agency should bo instructed by 
the treasurer of tho particular church that when tho money sent for a 
special object equals tho percentage of bonovolenoo funds approved by 
tho General Assembly for the Board or Boards v/ith tho work of which 
tho 'Special Object* or 'Special Objects' is or aro associated, all 
the remainder of tho bonevolonco funds forv/ardod by tho particular 
church are to bo divided among tho other benevolent objects approved 
by tho General Assembly in acoordanco v/ith the rospootivo poroontagos 
established by General Assembly for those objects. 

’^Monies deposed with the benevolence treasurer of a particular 
ohuroh by individual members of tho congregation in addition to their 
gifts to the benevolence budget of the ohuroh and designated for 
'Special Objects* should of course, bo transmitted intact as requested. 
If and when, however, such gifts equal or exceed the percentage of tho 
benevolence funds approved by the General Assembly for tho particular 
Board or Boards to v/hioh remittance is made in this connection, careful 
consideration should bo given as to hov/ much more money, if any, should 
bo sent to said Board from the general benevolence funds of the church,” 

• 6 - 

Suoh advioo as this if followod v/ould have results like the followin''. 

In a particular ohuroh, of v;hioh v;o could cito noro than one, an individual or^& 
family or tho minister himself is supporting a foreign missionary, oithor a friond 
or a child of tho family. This special contribution which diverts nothing from 
tho othor benevolonoos, but vAioh is a purely oxtra gift, v/ould have to bo included, 
under tho instructions just quoted, in tho bonovolonoos of tho Ohuroh, with tho 
result that all bonovolonoos except this special gift would bo divided among tho 
other Boards, and no member of the ohuroh v/ould bo giving anything to Foreign 
Missions. Or the some situation v/ould apply v/ith regard to a gift for education. 
Again and again an individual member in a ohuroh makes a gift to ono of our own 
home schools or colleges in oxoess of all the gifts of the ohuroh for all the 
Boards, To apply tho instructions quoted above v/ould moan that tho ohuroh as a 
v/hole v/ould give nothing to tho oauso of Christian oduoation, 

3, This raises tho interesting and diffioult question of spooifio objoot 
gifts. Both this and the whole budget question wore carefully studied for several 
years by a special oommittee of the General Assembly, of which Dr. Joseph A. Vanoe 
was Chairman, The Assembly of 1926 adopted tho recommendations of this Committee 
as follov/s: 

"The Boards and General Council shall be guided by tho following General 

"(l) In making up the benevolence budget uniform and prior consideration 
shall be given to the contractual and necessary obligations of the Boards and 
agencies; but at the same time. Boards and agencies are cautioned that provision 
for expansion of the work of one agency shall not directly or indirectly, be at tho 
cost of tho curtailment of tho present v/ork of another agency, 

"(2) Tho first responsibility of tho Church at large and of each Synod, 
Presbytery and congregation is to raise tho entire benevolence budget and to 
provide each Board and agency with the entire amount allowed it therein. 

"(3) Designations for any cause included in the benevolence budget 
should be encouraged as a legitimate educational practice. 

"But under no circumstances should such special designations be allov/od 
to v/ithdraw support from othor Boards and every effort should bo made to use them 
as a ground of necessary increase in tho support of the other Boards, 

"(4) When a Church or Presbytery or Synod has raised its full quota for 
any oauso, there should bo no limitation of its rights to give any additional amount 
to any cause as it desires, 

"(s) Designations for objects not included v/ithin tho bonovolenoo budgot 
should not bo solicited until tho Church at largo discharges its duty to tho entire 
benevolence budget. 

"The General Council is directed through its Budget and Finance Committee 
to work out in the light of these principles a plan for equitably meeting tho needs 
of all the Boards, as authorized by tho General Council and v/hich v/ill insure also 
the application of every contribution to the objoot for which it was intended by 
the giver, and report the same to tho next Assembly," 

In 1924 when Dr. Vanoo's Committee was earnestly studying the v/hole cues-- 
tion he asked tho Boards to express thoir opinion v/ith regard to tho v/holo problem 
of tho budgot. Tho Boards of National Missions and Foreign Missions appointed a 


joint oomittee to reply and Inter a roproBontativo of the Board of Christian 
Education iTOs added, This oomnittee, oonsisting of Dr. Covert, Ur. Uorse and Ur. 
Speer, maden careful study of terminology and of budget bases and procedure and 
mde a i^nimous report to Dr. Vance a good part of which he embodied in his report 
to the Assembly, This report pointed out that the budget as then (and as now) 
oonstructod « * 

"Does not convey to the Church any accurate information either as to the 
contractual obligations of the various Boards, as to their probable or necessary 
expenditures or as to their probable income. 

"It is clear also that the proportion of its Benevolence Budget which a 
Board must realise to meet its minimum contracted obligations varies greatly from 
Board to Board, with due consideration of other available sources of income. Thus, 
in 1922-23, a 33j5 budget realization sufficed to meet the expenditures of one 
Board whereas an 87^ realization iras necessary for another. This fact must 
neoessarily have a deoisive importance in any discussion of equalization, 

"To equalize receipts vjithout previously correcting the basic inequalities 
in the budget, v/ould be unjust and impracticable," 

A table, submitted to Dr, Vance, showed that in 1921-22 it was necessary 
for the Board of Foreign Missions to receive 92,9j5 of its allotment in the budget 
in order to meet actual expenditures and the Board of Homo Missions 82,3j5 while 
the Board of Christian Education could meet its actual expenditure 57,5/$ of 
its allotment and the Board of Ministerial Relief with 52^. This Joint report 
recommended "that in the making of the Benevolence Budget uniform and prior con¬ 
sideration be given to the contractual and necessary obligations of the Boards and 
Agencies," Dr, Vance*s Committee included this recommendation in its report and 
the Assembly adopted it in the very words of the report of the Joint Committee of 
the three Beards. 

As yet, hov/over, the basis of the budget has not been brought into accord 
with the Assembly's instruction. The budget and its resulting ratios are still 
used to produce a distribution of gifts at variance v;ith the ratio v/hioh would 
result from the Assembly's instruction. Our present budget allotments and ratios 
do not give "uniform and prior consideration to contractual and necessary obliga¬ 
tions of the Boards" nor are they in accord v;ith the declared vdll of the churches 
as indicated in their actual distribution of their contributions over a long period 
of years, and they do not rest upon any comparative study of the needs of the 
causes represented by the Boards, To press the ratios upon all the giving of the 
ohurohos as some are doing is open to three objections. It violates the principles 
laid dov/n by the Assembly, It overrules the long expressed intent of the ohurches. 
And, as already stated, it works grave injustice to the work of some of the Boards. 

Wo believe that there is a right place for the use of budget ratios 
soundly based, in the case of those individuals and ohurohos which do not v,ish to 
exercise their own independent trusteeship but which prefer to give a general sum 
to be apportioned as may bo determined by the General Assembly, To include all our 
giving, however, under this category would be simply to dry up our richest motive 
springs and to bring our benevolences to the disastrous stage to which benevolences 
have been brought in every denomination which has tried to pool its benevolent 
contributions and then to distribute them by some mathematical ratio. There must 
be room for freedom, for the expression of special interest, for the meeting of 
special emergencies. For example, "The Buckeye Bugle," the official organ of the 
Synod of Ohio in its issue of Hovember 14 proposes in view of the special situation 
in Ohio a special effort for National Missions as follows! 

- 8 - 

"Our goal is straight ahead of usi 

"*§6,000.00 inoroaso for national Missions this year, 

10^ increase for all benevolences this year,' 

V everybody trying we can get that §6,000.00 for National Missions 

on Thanksgiving Sunday, But it must bo an increase over last year," 

field of education likewise. Synod after Synod projeots a speoial effort in behalf 
of some one of its own institutions and carries this on wholly apart from the 
benevolence budget. It would stifle efforts of this sort to include them within 
to divert the major part of each dollar given in such an 
eifort to other causes for vjhioh it was not intended, 

iw m the budget ratios to all the giving of the Church, including 

the Women s Borne and Foreign Missionary Societies, as some desire, would mean that 
the gifts of those Societies, which are nov; divided almost equally between Home and 
roreign Missions, and which do not cover even the present cost of the work which is 
already hei^ done, would have to bo redivided. In 1934-35 the Women's Homo Mis¬ 
sionary Societies gave §790,345 and the Foreign Missionary Societies §864,570, a 
total of $1,654,915. If this amount wore redistributed according to the ratios it 
would mean a loss to the National Board of §87,007 and to the Foreign Board of 
$318,932, creating by such a transfer just this much additional deficit for each 
of these Boards, 

And this is ojtaotly what viill happen in the general bonovolonoo budget, 
apart from the Women's Societies, to the extent that the churches are told that the 
budget ratio represents the comparative needs of the work of the Boards which it 
does not, or to the extent that their contributions are brought through a central 
receiving agency under the distribution of the budget ratio. 

Of course, the situation is graver than this, due to the wide practice in 
Synods and Presbyteries and local receiving agencies of rearranging the ratio and 
deducting for local uses part of the benovolenoo funds sent for the Boards. In 
some cases this is managed by first adding to the apportionment what it is proposed 
to deduct but elsevfhere it is simply and solely subtraction. Also here at home 
the General Council and the Church have no control over local interests, missionary 
or philanthropic, colleges or hospitals, v;hioh raise funds for thomsolves from our 
churches outside the budget. Our foreign missionary interests cannot do this. All 
that FSreign Missions gets must come v/ithin its ratio. That is not true of 
Christian Education or Home Missions. In one Synod it was actually proposed to 
deduct a certain amount from the Foreign Missions ratio and assign it to a 
Synodical institution. 

Wo are far from proposing any abandonment of the budget system. VIhat we 
do urge is that vje should not \mlk into any dungeon plan of budget. Our present 
budget properly understood is of value. But it should be clearly discerned v/hat our 
present budget and budget ratio do moan and v;hat they do not mean. They mean that 
if the full amount is given each Board could profitably receive the amount indicated 
as its share of this amount; even so the shares of the Boards are not determined 
on any just comparative basis. They moan that if any individual, or individual 
church, wishes to do so, he or it may make gifts on the ratio resulting from the 
budget, or that if any individual, or any individual church, wishes to give for 
equalizing purposes he or it may do so. But the budget and the budget ratio do not 
mean, that every local ohuroh is expected, irrespective of its interests or the 
sense of individual trusteeship on the part of its members, to make its gifts in 
rigid conformity to the budget ratio, or is by any process of indirection to be 


to make hie gifts in aooordanoe with the budget ratio or is to be forced to L so 
hL®fr?/v?°r“ f equalizing that frustrates either his purpose or the purpose of 
^ ^ i^ellov/ ohuroh nomber, or both in the distribution of their gifts. They do not 
actually given by churches and individuals, if it falls short 
0 the full budget, shall bo divided by the ratio. They do not moan that this is 
the rooogmzod ratio of importance of the various oausos so that, for oxanplo 
every member of the Church at homo is to conceive the v/hole cause of Christian 
education in terms of the ratio of that Board and the budget, or of any other 
cause of the Church in that ratio. 

+V, surely could think that the duty of the Presbyterian Church in 

tne lield of Christian education could be adequately discharged by an annual 
contribution of the amount allotted in the budget for 1935-36 to the Board of 
Christian Education, The cause needs far more than that. Our statements do not 
imply any vi&ni of appreciation whatever of the work of that Board or of any other 
Boards of our Church or of the cause which it represents. Vfo are dealing only with 
the benov^oneo budget and pointing out its present inadequacy and inequality. The 
Board of ^istian Education recognizes that only "about one-half of the reported 
contributions of tho churches to the cause of Christian Education are givon to the 
Board of Christian Education." In other words, that cause rocoivod tho amount 
givon to the Board plus an equal amount givon direct. This is not tho case with 
all tho Boards. Tho Foreign Board allotment in the budget has to include prac¬ 
tically all that our churches give to Foreign Missions, Hot so with the Board of 
Christian Education. It is not proposed that the amount givon by tho churches 
outside of the Board of Christian Education should be turned into that Board so as 
to make up its allotment (And note that this allotment is more than twice the 
actual expenditure for '34-'35) but its appeal is that of all contributions of the 
churches to the Boards it should receive its budget ratio of 18,50?5 above all 
outside gifts to Christian Education. 

And novf tho problem is tho more grave in viov; of tho supplementary effort 
in addition to the budget, to moot tho real and grave needs of our Christian 
colleges. I believe in these colleges and want to see them adequately supported. 
The action of tho General Assembly v/hioh is nov; before the Council and has been 
referred to the Committee on Budget and Finance is vfise. Our Christian Colleges 
need a far larger support. But the difficulty is to relate this need and appeal 
to the bonevolonoo budget and to tho primary responsibility of tho Boards and the 
General Council for the benevolence budget, and also to relate to it the at least 
equal needs of our Church's higher educational institutions on the foreign field 
which have thus far had to be financed almost wholly within tho Foreign Board's 
allotment in the budget. 

We do not think we need to exaggerate those difficulties. The Church is 
abundantly able to do all its duty in ovory field and for every cause. 

One error against which via need to guard in our present thinking is the 
idea that there is a fixed amount available, that the Church has "one pocket" and 
that whatever any one agency or cause dravfs froni that pocket is diverted from 
other agencies. This is a complete mistake and all our discussions are at fault 
which aim at a distribution of gifts rather than at increase of giving. Tho Church 
has abundant means for all ite work. Wo ought to desist from devising new schemes 
for redistributing tho amount now givon and devote our attention to devising vmys 
of dravjing out tho as yet untapped resources of tho Church. 

- 10 - 

4 . 7^* ■tho budget on the right basis as 

actual “ *''® Assembly, with full recognition of all the facts as to 

devl.a ^®°®^P*5 actual needs as far as these can be determined, and then to 
the ! Prooesses of ordered freedom which will call out the larger giving of 

10 !,+ ^^® °®®®®® Church some adequate port at 

one cr°;v, contributions from our people to outside good causes, not 

one 01 them better than our ovm. 

Tho r °“® °^her aspect of the present situation which calls notice. 

'•wL- Assembly action, as recommended by Dr. Vance's Committee, declared 

+w« 1 , ^'•®®hytory or Synod has raised its full quota for any cause, 

cau^! l^it'^hion of its rights to give any additional amount to any 

Chur h desires. Lot us note again, it is not required or expected of any 

nuron -cnat all its benovolenco budgets must be divided according to the ratio, 
ut only that it should moot its apportionment. Some are bringing pressure to 

"hioh have undertaken to support homo or foreign missionaries, in 
aaition to their regular apportionments to other Boards, to desist from doing 
nis and to divide this supplementary gift according to tho ratios. This is in 
contravention of tho agroomont of tho oommittoo of the Boards in 1924 and of tho 
action of the General Assembly in 1926. And results in dooroasod receipts and 
increased deficits of the Mission Boards. 

In conclusion vje would say simply that we think (l) v(e shall have to 
o^e to the recommendation of tho Joint Committee of the Boards and the action of 
the General Assembly of 1926 vdth regard to tho basis of tho budget. V/o are not 
anything could be further from the fact, as you well know, 
than the statement that the General Council's budget recommendation rests on 
careful study and due consideration of all tho work and all tho needs and all the 
calls of all the Boards, (2) T/e should insist that tho present ratios be not 
used in a way that is manifestly unjust and inequitable. (3) We should adhere to 
the fair and oonsidorato course of tho past in recognizing tho oxietonoo of tv;o 
authorized roooiving agencies, the Treasurers of tho Boards and tho Central 
Receiving Agency of tho General Council and not seek to direct all tho gifts of the 
Church to the Central Receiving Agency alone and thereby to bring them under the 
budget ratio distribution. 

Of course, the one thing v;hioh we all desire is that every cause of tho 
Church should receive vihat it needs for the work committed to it and that no cause 
should prosper at the cost of other causes. 

Looking at the matter in tho large, it is clear that our foreign mission 
work has never been supported by any disproportionate provision. In 1929 the total 
congregational expanses of our church wore ®50,375,741 and its total bonovolonoos 
as reported in the Assembly Minutes wore 215,227,206 of which tho Boards roooivod 
$10,298,214. Of this tho total given to foreign missions including the v/omen's 
societies vreis $4,161,322, In other v/ords, our Church spent fifteen times as much 
at home as it spent on tho evangelization of the non Christian vforld. And we also 
know that the disproportion is much greater than this inasmuch as members of our 
churches give far more to educational and missionary and philanthropic purposes in 
America than is reported in tho congregational and benevolent statistics. Tho 
amount needed for the work abroad is only a fraction of the amount needed at home 
but can the present proportion bo regarded as a just fulfilment of our duty? 

Statement prepared by Dr. Speer# 
January 1936